Overview

This trial is active, not recruiting.

Condition hypertension
Treatments hydrochlorthiazide, amiloride, hydrochlorthiazide and amiloride
Phase phase 4
Sponsor University of Cambridge
Collaborator University of Leicester
Start date November 2009
End date July 2015
Trial size 423 participants
Trial identifier NCT02351973, 2009-010068-41, UKCRN 4501

Summary

The purpose of this study is to determine whether the routine combination of optimal thiazide and K+-sparing diuretic will both increase efficacy of BP reduction and reduce risk of glucose intolerance; and whether K+-sparing diuretics alone may have a neutral or even beneficial effect upon glucose tolerance.

United States No locations recruiting
Other Countries No locations recruiting

Study Design

Allocation randomized
Endpoint classification efficacy study
Intervention model parallel assignment
Masking double blind (subject, investigator)
Primary purpose treatment
Arm
(Active Comparator)
Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) ATC class: C03AA03 Form: Tablet Dose range: Phase 1: 25mg (2 x 12.5mg tablet) Phase 2: 50mg (4 x 12.5mg tablet) Maximum allowed dose: 50mg Administration: oral
hydrochlorthiazide
HCTZ 25mg to 50mg All drugs will be provided in an acceptable container where the active agent is not identified on the drug label. In Phase 1 (weeks 0-12) patients will have 1 tablet from each of 2 bottles. These will contain either a) HCTZ 12.5mg in both bottles; b) amiloride 5mg in both bottles; OR c) one bottle of each. In Phase 2 (weeks13-24) patients will take 2 tablets from each of 2 bottles. These bottles will have the same contents as in Phase 1, except that the number of tablets will be twice as many.
(Active Comparator)
Amiloride ATC class: C03DB01 Form: Tablet Dose range: Phase 1: 10mg (2 x 5mg tablet) Phase 2: 20mg (4 x 5mg tablet) Maximum allowed dose: 20mg Administration: oral
amiloride
Amiloride 10mg to 20mg All drugs will be provided in an acceptable container where the active agent is not identified on the drug label. In Phase 1 (weeks 0-12) patients will have 1 tablet from each of 2 bottles. These will contain either a) HCTZ 12.5mg in both bottles; b) amiloride 5mg in both bottles; OR c) one bottle of each. In Phase 2 (weeks13-24) patients will take 2 tablets from each of 2 bottles. These bottles will have the same contents as in Phase 1, except that the number of tablets will be twice as many.
(Active Comparator)
Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) + Amiloride Form: Tablets (separate tablet of each drug) Dose range: Phase 1: HCTZ 12.5mg (1 tablet) + Amiloride 5mg (1 tablet) Phase 2: HCTZ 25mg (2 x 12.5mg tablet) + Amiloride 10mg (2 x 5mg tablet) Maximum allowed dose: HCTZ 25mg/ Amiloride 10mg Administration: oral
hydrochlorthiazide and amiloride
HCTZ 12.5 to 25mg & + Amiloride 5mg to 10mg All drugs will be provided in an acceptable container where the active agent is not identified on the drug label. In Phase 1 (weeks 0-12) patients will have 1 tablet from each of 2 bottles. These will contain either a) HCTZ 12.5mg in both bottles; b) amiloride 5mg in both bottles; OR c) one bottle of each. In Phase 2 (weeks13-24) patients will take 2 tablets from each of 2 bottles. These bottles will have the same contents as in Phase 1, except that the number of tablets will be twice as many.

Primary Outcomes

Measure
Blood glucose measured two hours after oral ingestion of a 75 G glucose drink, following overnight fasting.
time frame: 0, 12 and 24

Secondary Outcomes

Measure
Home systolic BP. The secondary outcome is the difference from the end of placebo run-in to 24 weeks
time frame: 0, 12 and 24 weeks
Plasma insulin during OGTT. The secondary outcome is the change from end of placebo to 24 weeks in the rise in insulin from 0 to 30 minutes during oral glucose tolerance test
time frame: 0, 12 and 24 weeks
HbA1C. The secondary outcome is the change in HbA1c between end of placebo and 24 weeks
time frame: 0, 12, 24 weeks
Clinic systolic BP. The secondary outcome is the change in clinic systolic BP from end of placebo run-in to 24 weeks.
time frame: 0, 12, 24 weeks
Area under the curve of the oGTT. The secondary outcome is the difference in area under the curve of blood glucose, from 0-120 minutes after glucose ingestion, between the final day of the placebo run-in, and 24 weeks.
time frame: 0, 12, 24 weeks
Fasting serum lipids. The secondary outcome is the difference in fasting serum lipids, between the final day of the placebo run-in, and 24 weeks.
time frame: 0, 12, 24 weeks
The natriuretic response, as assessed from the compensatory increase in plasma renin. The secondary outcome is the difference in plasma renin from end of placebo run-in to 24 weeks
time frame: 0, 12 and 24 weeks

Eligibility Criteria

Male or female participants from 18 years up to 80 years old.

Inclusion Criteria; Patients can proceed to placebo run-in if biochemical data available from previous 6 months, but cannot proceed to randomised treatment if eligibility not confirmed by baseline sample: 1. Age 18-80 2. Diagnosis of hypertension according to BHS criteria 3. Systolic BP on permitted background treatment ≥ 140 mmHg and home BP ≥ 130mmHg. Patients may be included if the PI anticipates BP criteria for inclusion will be met at randomisation 4. Indication for diuretic treatment: - Untreated + (age>55 AND/OR Black AND/OR renin<12mU/L) - receiving one or any permutation of the following: *ACEi, ARB, β-blocker, CCB, direct renin inhibitor 5. At least one other component (i.e. additional to hypertension) of the metabolic syndrome (reduced HDL, raised triglycerides, glucose, waist circumference)* * Definition of Metabolic Syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation, 2006: Central obesity (waist circumference > 94cm male (>90 if Asian), > 80 female plus two of: - SBP ≥ 130 or DBP ≥ 85 mmHg - Fasting glucose >5.6mmol/l - Fasting Triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l (or on rx) - HDL < 1.03 mmol/l males, < 1.29 mmol/l females (or on rx) Exclusion Criteria: 1. Diabetes (types 1 or 2) 2. Secondary hypertension 3. eGFR < 45 mls/min 4. Plasma K+ outside normal range on two successive measurements during screening 5. Clinic SBP >200 mmHg or DBP >120mmHg, with PI discretion to override if home BP`s lower 6. Requirement for diuretic therapy (other than for hypertension) 7. Absolute contra-indications to any of the study drugs 8. Current therapy for cancer 9. Anticipation of change in medical status planned surgical intervention requiring >2 weeks convalescence, actual or planned pregnancy) 10. Inability to give informed consent 11. Not on stable doses of all hypertensive medications to be continued throughout the study for a minimum of 4 weeks prior to randomisation, or not normally less than 2 weeks if early randomisation is required at the discretion of the PI. 12. Participation in a clinical study involving an investigational drug/device within 4 weeks of screening. 13. Any concomitant condition that may adversely affect the safety and/or efficacy of the study drug or severely limit the subject's lifespan or ability to complete the study 14. Treatment with any of the following prohibited medications: - Oral corticosteroids within 3 months of Screening and prohibited during study participation. - Chronic stable or unstable use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs other than acetylsalicylic acid is prohibited. Chronic use is defined as >3 consecutive or nonconsecutive days of treatment per week. intermittent use of NSAIDs is strongly discouraged throughout the duration of this study. If intermittent treatment is required, NSAIDs must not be used for more than a total of 2 days. For all subjects requiring analgesic or anti-pyretic agents, the use of paracetamol is recommended during study participation. - The use of short-acting oral nitrates (eg, sublingual nitroglycerin) is permitted; however, subjects should not take short-acting oral nitrates within 4 hours of Screening or any subsequent study visit. - The use of long-acting oral nitrates is permitted; however, the dose must be stable for at least 2 weeks prior to screening/ randomisation. - Use of sympathomimetic decongestants is permitted; but, not within 1 week prior to screening or randomisation. or within 1 day prior to study visits; - The use of theophylline is permitted; however, the dose must be stable for at least 4 weeks prior to Screening and throughout study participation. - The use of phosphodiesterase (PDE) type V inhibitors is permitted; however, subjects must refrain from taking these medications within 1 day of Screening or any subsequent study visit.

Additional Information

Official title Comparison of Single and Combination Diuretics in Low-Renin Hypertension
Principal investigator Professor MJ Brown
Description A major attraction of K+-sparing diuretics may be the absence of risk of new-onset diabetes (DM). Since they have not been compared in hypertension outcome trials, and DM has not been an endpoint in heart failure studies of spironolactone or eplerenone, we do not know for certain whether they are clean in this respect. Short-term studies suggest they are.49 Interestingly in INSIGHT there was no excess of DM in patients receiving HCTZ 25mg, which was combined with amiloride 2.5mg, but increased by 30% in patients on HCTZ/amiloride 50/5mg.44 In the proposed study we shall use the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to provide an endpoint for each subject. This strategy has recently been employed to demonstrate a difference after just 12 weeks of dosing with a thiazide diuretic50. Hyperkalaemia has been the traditional concern about K+-sparing diuretics. We expect to demonstrate that in patients with eGFR ≥45, the risk of hyperkalaemia is nullified by combination with a thiazide. Instead then of amiloride being used mainly in trace doses to balance the hypokalaemia of thiazides, practice might reverse to thinking of thaizides as the "partner" used to negate risk of hyperkalaemia. The challenge to designing this study is to compare several options among the diuretics while achieving clear cut answers to: 1. the comparison of combination with single diuretics and 2. the comparison of K+-sparing diuretics with thiazide. A study of sufficient duration to establish efficacy and tolerability (especially upon glucose tolerance) cannot be crossover in design and therefore requires a large number of subjects to compare the options. In order to maximize recruitment whilst also maximizing sensitivity to detect changes in OGTT, we will open the trial to most of those patients with hypertension in whom diuretic is a reasonable next option, providing they have one feature of the metabolic syndrome - additional to hypertension.
Trial information was received from ClinicalTrials.gov and was last updated in July 2015.
Information provided to ClinicalTrials.gov by University of Cambridge.