This trial is active, not recruiting.

Condition birth weight
Treatments energy dense biscuits, wheat flour, oil, iron & folic acid
Sponsor Aga Khan University
Collaborator English Biscuit Manufacturers
Start date September 2014
End date January 2016
Trial size 224 participants
Trial identifier NCT02294240, PED 3009


A nutrition trial which is based on the evidence that multivitamins & micro nutrients provided during pregnancy in malnourished women will improve neonatal birth weight. There will be two arms. Arm one will provide energy dense biscuits to pregnant women with BMI <20 & gestational age less than 14 weeks. The other arm with same criteria will be provided with wheat flour, oil, iron & folic acid. Neonatal birth weight is the primary outcome of interest but maternal weight gain, maternal hemoglobin & ferritin levels and palatability of biscuits will also be assessed.

United States No locations recruiting
Other Countries No locations recruiting

Study Design

Allocation randomized
Intervention model parallel assignment
Masking open label
Primary purpose treatment
Energy dense biscuits will be provided throughout pregnancy after enrolment
energy dense biscuits
Energy dense biscuits will be provided
(Placebo Comparator)
Wheat Flour,oil, iron and folic acid will be provided fortnightly throughout pregnancy after enrolment
wheat flour, oil, iron & folic acid
Wheat flour, oil, iron and folic acid will be provided

Primary Outcomes

Neonatal birth weight
time frame: within 48 hours of birth

Secondary Outcomes

Maternal weight gain
time frame: on enrolment,20-22 week, 33-35 week of gestation
Maternal Hemoglobin and Ferritin
time frame: On enrollment and last visit (33-35 weeks of gestation)
Palatability, acceptability, and compliance of the biscuits
time frame: On last visit (33-35 weeks of gestation)

Eligibility Criteria

Female participants of any age.

Inclusion Criteria: All pregnant females with gestational age ≤14 weeks and Body mass index(BMI) <18.5 Exclusion Criteria: Pregnant females with underlying chronic illness (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal disease, and hypertension) Pregnant females with history of multiple abortions ( two or more abortions) Pregnant females identified as having twin/triplet pregnancies Pregnant females not consenting to participate Pregnant females who are already enrolled in any other study that may interfere with the results of this study

Additional Information

Official title Effect of Energy Dense Biscuits in Under Nourished Pregnant Women on Birth Weight of Their Newborns in a Low Income Peri-urban Setting of Karachi; a Community Based Randomized Interventional Study
Principal investigator Farah N Qamar
Description It has been realized that micronutrient deficiencies are a major determinant of intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) so multiple trials using micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy have been done & shown a positive effect on birth weight.UNICEF/WHO/United Nations University(UNU) designed a new multiple micro nutrient supplement for pregnant and lactating women—the UNICEF/WHO/UNU international multiple micro nutrient preparation (UNIMMAP)—that provides the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 15 vitamins and minerals. The benefit of this supplementation over routinely prescribed iron and folic supplementation has been proven in multiple trials. Evidence has shown reduction in low birth newborns. This randomized controlled trial will compare the effect of calories and multiple micro nutrients provided in energy dense biscuits manufactured by EBM to malnourished pregnant women seen by AKU's Department of Paediatrics and Child Health at their Ali Akbar Shah Goth and Ibrahim Hyderi, compared to food supplementation ration of wheat and oil, plus iron and folic acid tablet supplementation. Arm 1: Dietary supplementation with EBM biscuits containing multiple vitamins and calcium in the recommended allowance (RDA) for pregnant women Arm 2: Supplementation with Wheat flour and oil, iron and folic acid All undernourished pregnant females identified before 14 weeks of gestation through our surveillance system will be offered enrollment. First contact: First meeting will be on enrollment. Patients will be randomized into any one of the arm. After randomization Weight, height, MUAC and BMI will be recorded. Samples for Ferritin & hemoglobin will be drawn. In Arm 1 participant will be supplied with energy dense biscuits while in arm 2 will be provided with Wheat flour and oil after every two weeks. End of each trimester: In second(20-22 week) & third trimester(33-35 week) weight, MUAC & BMI will be recorded. Supplementation will be given according to the Arm. Samples will also be drawn for Ferritin & hemoglobin on third visit. Also at the third trimester visit palatability, accessibility and compliance with biscuits will be assessed by filling a preformed questionnaire. Follow up of the newborn: Follow up of the newborn will be done within 48 hours. Length, weight, fronto-occipital circumference and MUAC will be recorded.
Trial information was received from ClinicalTrials.gov and was last updated in January 2016.
Information provided to ClinicalTrials.gov by Aga Khan University.