This trial is active, not recruiting.

Condition diabetes mellitus type 1
Treatments bionic pancreas, patient controlled insulin pump
Phase phase 2
Sponsor Massachusetts General Hospital
Collaborator Boston University
Start date April 2014
End date July 2015
Trial size 48 participants
Trial identifier NCT02092220, Multicenter Study


This study will test the hypothesis that a wearable bionic pancreas system that automatically delivers insulin and glucagon can provide superior regulation of glycemia vs. usual care for adults with type 1 diabetes.

Please note that all participants must work or attend school at one of the following campuses: Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, MA; University of Massachusetts Medical Center in Worcester, MA; University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, NC; Stanford University in Palo Alto, CA.

United States No locations recruiting
Other countries No locations recruiting

Study Design

Allocation randomized
Endpoint classification safety/efficacy study
Intervention model crossover assignment
Masking open label
Primary purpose treatment
Bionic Pancreas Diabetes Management
bionic pancreas
(Active Comparator)
Usual Care Diabetes Management
patient controlled insulin pump

Primary Outcomes

Mean CGMG during days 2-11
time frame: 10 days
Fraction of time spent with CGMG < 60 mg/dl during days 2-11
time frame: 10 days

Secondary Outcomes

time frame: day 1, days 2-11, days 1-11
CGMG time in ranges
time frame: day 1, days 2-11, days 1-11
Subjects with mean CGMG < 154 mg/dl
time frame: day 1, days 2-11, days 1-11
Number of hypoglycemic event
time frame: day 1, days 2-11, days 1-11
Fraction of days that CGM was used by participants as part of their usual care
time frame: days 1-11
Glycated albumin on day 11
time frame: 11 days
1,5-anhydroglucitol on day 11
time frame: 11 days
Number of severe hypoglycemic events
time frame: 11 days
Number of episodes of symptomatic hypoglycemia
time frame: day 1, days 2-11, days 1-11, overall, daytime, nighttime
Number of carbohydrate interventions for hypoglycemia
time frame: day 1, days 2-11, days 1-11, overall, daytime, nighttime
Total grams of carbohydrate taken for hypoglycemia
time frame: day 1, days 2-11, days 1-11, overall, daytime, nighttime
Insulin total daily dose
time frame: day 1, days 2-11, days 1-11
Glucagon total daily dose
time frame: day 1, days 2-11, days 1-11
Mean glucose target set by user (time-weighted average over study period)
time frame: day 1, days 2-11, days 1-11, overall, daytime, nighttime
Fraction of time bionic pancreas off-line or not functioning properly
time frame: 11 days
Episodes of nausea and nausea index
time frame: day 1, days 2-11, days 1-11, and each individual day
Change in body weight
time frame: 11 days
Change in hemoglobin
time frame: 11 days
Incidence of skin rash
time frame: 11 days

Eligibility Criteria

Male or female participants at least 18 years old.

Inclusion Criteria: - Age ≥18 years and have had clinical type 1 diabetes for at least one year - Diabetes managed using an insulin pump for ≥ 6 months - Prescription medication regimen stable for > 1 month (except for medications that will not affect the safety of the study and are not expected to affect any outcome of the study, in the judgement of the site principal investigator). - Employee or student working or studying during most of the week at one of the participating campuses (Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, MA; University of Massachusetts Medical Center in Worcester, MA; University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, NC; Stanford University in Palo Alto, CA) - Lives within a 30 minute drive-time radius of the central monitoring location for one of the study sites - Willing to remain within a 60 minute drive-time radius of the central monitoring location for one of the study sites during each of the 11-day study arms - Have someone over 18 years of age who lives with them, has access to where they sleep, is willing to be in the house when the subject is sleeping, and is willing to receive calls from the study staff and check the welfare of the study subject if telemetry shows a technical problem or severe biochemical hypoglycemia without subject response and the subject does not answer their telephone (up to two individuals can share this role, but they must be willing to carefully coordinate with each other and the subject so that one of them is clearly designated as having this responsibility at any given time) - Willing to wear two infusion sets and CGM sensor and change sets frequently (at least one new glucagon infusion set daily) Exclusion Criteria: - Unable to provide informed consent (e.g. impaired cognition or judgment) - Unable to safely comply with study procedures and reporting requirements (e.g. impairment of vision or dexterity that prevents safe operation of the bionic pancreas, impaired memory, unable to speak and read English) - Current participation in another diabetes-related clinical trial that, in the judgment of the principal investigator, will compromise the results of this study or the safety of the subject - Pregnancy (positive urine HCG), breast feeding, plan to become pregnant in the immediate future, or sexually active without use of contraception - Need to go outside of the designated geographic boundaries during either arm of the study - Current alcohol abuse (intake averaging > 3 drinks daily in last 30 days), use of marijuana within 1 month of enrollment, or other substance abuse (use within the last 6 months of controlled substances other than marijuana without a prescription) - Unwilling or unable to refrain from drinking more than 2 drinks in an hour or more than 4 drinks in a day or use of marijuana during the trial - Unwilling or unable or to avoid use of drugs that may dull the sensorium, reduce sensitivity to symptoms of hypoglycemia, or hinder decision making during the period of participation in the study (use of beta blockers will be allowed as long as the dose is stable and the subject does not meet the criteria for hypoglycemia unawareness while taking that stable dose, but use of benzodiazepines or narcotics, even if by prescription, may be excluded according to the judgment of the principal investigator) - History of liver disease that is expected to interfere with the anti-hypoglycemia action of glucagon (e.g. liver failure or cirrhosis). Other liver disease (i.e. active hepatitis, steatosis, active biliary disease, any tumor of the liver, hemochromatosis, glycogen storage disease) may exclude the subject if it causes significant compromise to liver function or may do so in an unpredictable fashion. - Renal failure on dialysis - Personal history of cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, pancreatic tumor, or any other pancreatic disease besides type 1 diabetes - Any known history of coronary artery disease including, but not limited to, history of myocardial infarction, stress test showing ischemia, history of angina, or history of intervention such as coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous coronary intervention, or enzymatic lysis of a presumed coronary occlusion) - Abnormal EKG consistent with coronary artery disease or increased risk of malignant arrhythmia including, but not limited to, evidence of active ischemia, prior myocardial infarction, proximal LAD critical stenosis (Wellen's sign), prolonged QT interval (> 440 ms). Non-specific ST segment and T wave changes are not grounds for exclusion in the absence of symptoms or history of heart disease. A reassuring evaluation by a cardiologist after an abnormal EKG finding may allow participation. - Congestive heart failure (established history of CHF, lower extremity edema, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, or orthopnea) - History of TIA or stroke - Seizure disorder, history of any non-hypoglycemic seizure within the last two years, or ongoing treatment with anticonvulsants - History of hypoglycemic seizures or coma in the last year - History of pheochromocytoma: fractionated metanephrines will be tested in patients with history increasing the risk for a catecholamine secreting tumor: - episodic or treatment refractory (requiring 4 or more medications to achieve normotension) hypertension - paroxysms of tachycardia, pallor, or headache - personal or family history of MEN 2A, MEN 2B, neurofibromatosis, or von Hippel-Lindau disease - History of adrenal disease or tumor - Hypertension with systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥100 despite treatment - Untreated or inadequately treated mental illness (indicators would include symptoms such as psychosis, hallucinations, mania, and any psychiatric hospitalization in the last year), or treatment with anti-psychotic medications that are known to affect glucose regulation. - Electrically powered implants (e.g. cochlear implants, neurostimulators) that might be susceptible to RF interference - Unable to completely avoid acetaminophen for duration of study - History of adverse reaction to glucagon (including allergy) besides nausea and vomiting - Established history of allergy or severe reaction to adhesive or tape that must be used in the study - History of eating disorder such as anorexia, bulimia, or diabulemia or omission of insulin to manipulate weight - History of intentional, inappropriate administration of insulin leading to severe hypoglycemia requiring treatment - Use oral (e.g. thiazolidinediones, biguanides, sulfonylureas, glitinides, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT-2 inhibitors) anti-diabetic medications - Lives in or frequents areas with poor Verizon wireless network coverage (which would prevent remote monitoring) - Any factors that, in the opinion of the site principal investigator or overall principal investigator, would interfere with the safe completion of the study

Additional Information

Official title A Multicenter Study of Outpatient Automated Blood Glucose Control With a Bihormonal Bionic Pancreas
Principal investigator Steven J Russell, MD, PhD
Trial information was received from ClinicalTrials.gov and was last updated in October 2016.
Information provided to ClinicalTrials.gov by Massachusetts General Hospital.