Overview

This trial is active, not recruiting.

Condition smoking
Treatment smokers cease smoking
Sponsor University of Vermont
Collaborator National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Start date April 2013
End date April 2016
Trial size 170 participants
Trial identifier NCT01824511, CHRBS B11-185, R01DA031687

Summary

The most widely-accepted animal model of nicotine withdrawal states stopping nicotine makes rewarding events become less rewarding. The current study will test if this is true in humans. If we find tobacco abstinence does make rewards less rewarding, this would suggest new symptoms to add to official descriptions of nicotine withdrawal. It would also suggest we need to develop new behavioral and pharmacological interventions to correct this problem. If stopping smoking does not make rewards less rewarding, this would suggest this animal model does not apply to the human condition and we need to continue to search for an animal model of tobacco withdrawal that is relevant to smokers stopping smoking.

United States No locations recruiting
Other Countries No locations recruiting

Study Design

Intervention model single group assignment
Masking open label
Primary purpose basic science
Arm
(Experimental)
Participants are paid to quit smoking without using any medications.
smokers cease smoking
Smokers are paid to be abstinent for four weeks, and stop-smoking medications may not be used.

Primary Outcomes

Measure
Responses to Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT) Test
time frame: four weeks after quit date
Rewarding Events Scale score.
time frame: four weeks after quit date

Secondary Outcomes

Measure
Delayed Discounting
time frame: four weeks after quit date
Self-reports of Anhedonia and Apathy
time frame: four weeks after quit date

Eligibility Criteria

Male or female participants at least 18 years old.

Inclusion Criteria: For all participants: - 18 yrs old or older - able to read and understand verbal English fluently - citizen or resident alien - agree to abstain from illegal drugs during the study For current smokers: 1. currently smoke >10 cigarettes daily for > 1 yr 2. want to quit smoking for good via abrupt cessation without treatment 3. willing to quit 7-14 days from study entry and not reduce before quitting 4. no reduction in cigs/day by >25% in the last month 5. agree to no use of non-cigarette tobacco, non-tobacco nicotine, marijuana, illegal drugs, electronic cigarettes, or smoking cessation medications during the study 6. have carbon monoxide (CO) level > or = 8 ppm at the time of consent 7. no current use of prescribed psychoactive medications, including smoking cessation products. For former smokers: 1. smoked >10 cigarettes daily for > 1 yr 2. quit at least 1 yr ago 3. use of cigarettes or e-cigarettes 5 or fewer times in past year 4. no tobacco or nicotine-containing product in last month 5. agree to no use of non-cigarette tobacco, non-tobacco nicotine, marijuana, illegal drugs, electronic cigarettes, or smoking cessation medications during the study 6. have carbon monoxide (CO) level < 8 ppm at the time of consent 7. no current use of prescribed psychoactive medications, including smoking cessation products. Exclusion Criteria for all participants: - History of hand or wrist problems that could be exacerbated by study participation or interferes with completion of tasks - current (last year) mood or alcohol/drug-related psychiatric disorder or any neurological condition that could influence reward sensitivity; e.g. Parkinsonism - used marijuana 2 or more times in the last month - problems with the use of alcohol or illegal drugs in the last 6 months - currently pregnant - use of smokeless tobacco - lacking the use of one or both hands

Additional Information

Official title Does Smoking Cessation Increase Anhedonia? A Test of Pre-clinical Findings
Principal investigator John R Hughes, MD
Description Study design We will recruit until we have 70 current smokers who want to quit at two sites (Univ of Vermont and Dartmouth Medical School). We will also recruit a comparison group of 70 long-time former smokers to assist in interpretation of the results. In the first week, smokers will smoke their usual number of cigs/day. They will then quit and are to remain abstinent for 4 weeks. We will use a schedule of escalating monetary contingencies based on breath and saliva and/or urine samples to encourage abstinence. We will obtain dependent measures twice/week. The primary measures of reward responsivity will be the percent choosing the hard task and the amount of responding for a monetary reward on the EEfRT task and the score on our Rewarding Events scale. Other outcomes will be delay discounting results and self-reports of anhedonia and apathy. The study will run for 1 week pre-cessation (2 visits) and then for 4 weeks post-cessation. Measures and biochemical verifications will occur twice/wk. Former smokers will attend once a wee for four weeks. For the first week of abstinence, the cutoff for nonsmoking will be CO <8 ppm. For the remaining weeks, abstinence will be verified with a score of 0 (<10 ng/ml of cotinine) on a test strip in a saliva or urine sample plus a CO <8 ppm. At the initial session, completion of baseline surveys will describe the sample and also measure plausible moderators such as depression. We believe the most direct test of reward sensitivity is an evaluation of the influence of abstinence on operant responding for a reward. Thus, we have chosen performance on the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT), which examines responding as a function of response cost, reward magnitude and probability of reward, as one of our primary outcomes. For a self-report measure we will use our Rewarding Events (RE) scale that asks both about occurrence of presumed rewarding events and their anticipated pleasantness. Our RE scale will ask participants to rate 58 items on frequency in the last week as well perceived/expected pleasantness of events. Secondary measures include the 18-item Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES), the Temporal Experience of Pleasure (TEPS), Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale-Revised (MNWS), and a measure of delay discounting (DD).
Trial information was received from ClinicalTrials.gov and was last updated in March 2016.
Information provided to ClinicalTrials.gov by University of Vermont.