This trial is active, not recruiting.

Condition aggression
Treatment second step curriculum
Sponsor University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Collaborator Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Start date September 2009
End date June 2013
Trial size 4089 participants
Trial identifier NCT01792167, 1U01/CE001677, UIUC 10147


This study is a large-scale, randomized longitudinal evaluation of Second Step: Student Success Through Prevention (Second Step - SSTP), a middle school intervention (Committee for Children, 2008), which targets the shared underlying risk and protective factors for bullying, sexual harassment, and dating aggression. This program is unique in its emphasis on the role of peer group norms, attitudes, and behavior in the initiation and maintenance of bullying and other forms of violence. Because of this, this investigation will involve a direct test via social network analysis the extent to which peer norms or shifts in peer attitudes are impacted by the intervention. Bullying is conceptualized as including verbal, physical, relational, and cyber-aggression. Sexual violence is conceptualized as including sexual harassment, sexual coercion in dating relationships, and homophobic teasing. Thirty-six schools were drawn from four school districts in Illinois and one large district in Wichita, Kansas and randomly assigned to Second Step - SSTP or a control condition. Second Step -SSTP program draws from the risk/protective factors model and social-cognitive theories of aggression. Lessons focus on the outcomes of bullying, relational aggression, sexual harassment, dating relationships, and substance use. Risk factors targeted include inappropriate classroom behavior, favorable attitudes toward aggression and substance abuse, deviant peer affiliation, peer rejection, and impulsiveness are targeted as risk factors. Targeted protective factors include empathy, problem-solving skills, school connectedness, assertiveness and adoption of conventional norms. The P3R: Stories of Us - Bullying program, composed of a series of film-based education will be used in the control schools. All 6th graders at each school will be recruited and followed for the three year study period. Students and teachers will complete self-report and nomination tasks. Growth curve analysis via hierarchical linear modeling (HLM; Bryk & Raudenbush, 1992) will be utilized to assess change in the major dependent variables (bullying, sexual harassment perpetration, dating aggression), structural equation modeling will test for mediators across the study period, and social network analysis will be instrumental in identifying peer norms and attitudes.

United States No locations recruiting
Other Countries No locations recruiting

Study Design

Allocation randomized
Endpoint classification efficacy study
Intervention model parallel assignment
Masking open label
Primary purpose prevention
Second Step Curriculum
second step curriculum
social emotional learning program for 6th-8th graders. 15 50 minutes lessons in 6th grade, 13 50 minute lessons in 7th and 8th grade. covers empathy, perspective taking, anger management, impulse control, problem-solving, alcohol and drug prevention, sexual harassment, prejudice, bully prevention, bystander intervention
(No Intervention)
Stories of Us was provided to schools

Primary Outcomes

aggression perpetration
time frame: pre (fall 2010), three posts (spring 2011, 2012, 2013)

Secondary Outcomes

sexual violence
time frame: pre (fall 2010), 3 posts (spring 2011, 2012, 2013)

Eligibility Criteria

Male or female participants from 11 years up to 15 years old.

Inclusion Criteria: - Enrolled at one of our participating schools Exclusion Criteria: - None

Additional Information

Official title Multi-site Evaluation of Second Step: Student Success Through Prevention (Second Step - SSTP) in Preventing Bullying and Sexual Violence
Principal investigator Dorothy L Espelage, Ph.D.
Description Seven outcome measures were evaluated including bullying perpetration, peer victimization, physical fighting, homophobic name calling (victimization and perpetration), and sexual violence (victimization and perpetration). Given that students in the intervention received only one-year (15 lessons; 50 minutes/week) of the developmentally-sequenced three-year curriculum, it was hypothesized that the strongest intervention effect would be seen for overt physical aggression, followed by more subtle effects for bullying and peer victimization outcomes. Because students were not introduced to concepts of prejudice, bias, and sexual violence (referred to sexual harassment) until the 7th and 8th grade curriculum, it was hypothesized that no significant intervention effects would emerge for these constructs at this point in time.
Trial information was received from ClinicalTrials.gov and was last updated in March 2014.
Information provided to ClinicalTrials.gov by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.