This trial has been completed.

Conditions visceral leishmaniasis, human african trypanosomiasis, enteric fever, melioidosis, brucellosis, leptospirosis, relapsing fever, rickettsial diseases, hiv, tuberculosis, malaria, amoebic liver abscess
Treatments rk28 ict, it leish (rk39), immunochromatographic hat test, hat serostrip, card agglutination trypanosoma test (catt)-10, typhidot m, s. typhi igm/igg, test-it typhoid igm, test-it leptospirosis igm, leptospira igg/igm
Sponsor University Hospital, Geneva
Collaborator Institute of Tropical Medicine, Belgium
Start date January 2013
End date October 2014
Trial size 1927 participants
Trial identifier NCT01766830, 260260, WP2-01-FEV


Tropical fevers have been a diagnostic challenge from the antiquity. Nowadays, despite the availability of good diagnostic capacities, undifferentiated febrile illnesses continue to be a thorny problem for travel physicians. In developing countries, the scarcity of skilled personnel and adequate laboratory facilities makes the differential diagnosis of fevers even more complex. Health care workers must often rely on syndrome-oriented empirical approaches to treatment and might overestimate or underestimate the likelihood of certain diseases. For instance Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) contribute substantially to the burden of persistent (more than 1 week) fevers in the Tropics, causing considerable mortality and major disability. These diseases are however rarely diagnosed at primary health care (PHC) level. The difficulty in establishing the cause of febrile illnesses has resulted in omission or delays in treatment, irrational prescriptions with polytherapy, increasing cost and development of drug resistance.

In resource-limited settings, clinical algorithms constitute a valuable aid to health workers, as they facilitate the therapeutic decision in the absence of good laboratory capacities. There is a critical lack of appropriate diagnostic tools to guide treatment of NTDs. While clinical algorithms have been developed for some NTDs, in most cases they remain empirical. Besides, they rarely take into account local prevalence data, do not adequately represent the spectrum of patients and differential diagnosis at the primary care level and often have not been properly validated. The purpose of the study is to develop evidence-based Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT)-supported diagnostic guidelines for patients with persistent fever (≥ 1 week) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Sudan, Cambodia and Nepal.

United States No locations recruiting
Other countries No locations recruiting

Study Design

Intervention model single group assignment
Masking open label
Primary purpose diagnostic
A total of 10 RDTs will be assessed in the patients cohort for the respective target condition
rk28 ict
rk28 ICT is an immunochromatographic assay intended for qualitative detection of IgG antibodies directed towards VL in human serum, plasma or whole blood. It is manufactured by EASE-Medtrend (Shanghai, China)
it leish (rk39)
IT LEISH is an immuno-chromatographic test, using the recombinant antigen K39, to detect the presence of antibodies against Leishmania spp. It is manufactured by BioRad laboratories, USA.
immunochromatographic hat test
This is a lateral flow immunochromatographic test manufactured by Standard Diagnostics (Korea) in collaboration with FIND.
hat serostrip
The HAT Serostrip is an immunochromatographic assay developed by Coris BioConcept, France, which is designed for remote field use in individual HAT suspects.
card agglutination trypanosoma test (catt)-10
The Card Agglutination Trypanosoma test (CATT) has been used for many years at large scale for mass screening of mostly asymptomatic individuals (CATT-R250). Unfortunately, its operating characteristics have only been evaluated in the context of patients with persistent fever. Although it is not strictly an RDT, the CATT is rather easily performed in remote settings, in particular since a new and more robust format (CATT-D10) allows to test a lower number of patients in peripheral health facilities. It is manufactured by the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Antwerp, Belgium.
typhidot m
The Typhidot M test is a dot enzyme immunoassay that detects IgM and IgG directed against Salmonella typhi. It is manufactured by Reszon Diagnostics International, Malaysia
s. typhi igm/igg
The Salmonella typhi IgG/IgM Rapid Test is an immunochromatographic assay for the qualitative differential detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to Salmonella typhi in human serum, plasma or whole blood. It is manufactured by Standard Diagnostics (Korea)
test-it typhoid igm
Test-it Typhoid IgM lateral flow assay is a one-step immunochromatographic assay which uses a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen derived from salmonella typhi for the detection of specific IgM antibodies. It is manufactured by Life Assay, South Africa.
test-it leptospirosis igm
The Test-it™ Leptospira lateral flow device detects IgM antibodies in humans against Leptospira in whole blood or serum. It is manufactured by Life Assay, South Africa
leptospira igg/igm
This test enables the differential detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to Leptospira interrogans. It is manufactured by Standard Diagnostics, Korea

Primary Outcomes

Prevalence of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and other Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)
time frame: 18 months
Identification of clinical and laboratory diagnostic indicators
time frame: 18 months
Identification of reliable Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs)
time frame: 18 months
Predictive values of RDTs
time frame: 18 months

Secondary Outcomes

Cost-effectiveness of the diagnostic tests
time frame: 18 months

Eligibility Criteria

Male or female participants at least 5 years old.

Inclusion Criteria: - fever for ≥ 1 week - ≥ 5 years old (18 years onward in Cambodia) Exclusion Criteria: - unwilling or unable to give written informed consent - unable in the study physician's opinion to comply with the study requirements - existing laboratory confirmed diagnosis - need of immediate intensive care due to shock or respiratory distress

Additional Information

Official title Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) in Association With Clinical and Laboratory Predictors for the Diagnosis of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) in Patients Presenting With Persistent Fever (≥1 Week) in Cambodia, Nepal, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudan
Description This study is part of a large European Union (EU)-funded research project called NIDIAG that aims at developing integrated, evidence-based syndromic approach to improve management of NTD-related clinical syndromes. NIDIAG targets three non-specific clinical syndromes: the persistent fever, neurological, and intestinal syndrome. The objective of the project is to establish diagnostic guidelines for each of this syndrome, with a particular focus on severe and treatable neglected infectious diseases. The developed guidelines should integrate relevant Point-of-Care (POC)tests. The persistent fever syndrome targeted by NIDIAG is defined as presence of fever for at least one week. The list of diseases - both NTD and other Infectious Diseases (ID) - that frequently cause persistent (≥1 week) fever in the study countries includes: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), Human Africa Trypanosomiasis (HAT), Enteric (typhoid, paratyphoid) fever, Malaria, Brucellosis, Melioidosis, Tuberculosis, Amoebic liver abscess, Relapsing fever, HIV, Rickettsial diseases, and Leptospirosis. The study will try to identify clinical and laboratory predictors of these diseases as well as validate existing RDTs.
Trial information was received from ClinicalTrials.gov and was last updated in October 2016.
Information provided to ClinicalTrials.gov by University Hospital, Geneva.