This trial is active, not recruiting.

Conditions acute myeloid leukemia arising from previous myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, previously treated myelodysplastic syndrome, recurrent adult acute myeloid leukemia, secondary myelodysplastic syndrome
Treatments ipilimumab, laboratory biomarker analysis
Phase phase 1
Target CTLA-4
Sponsor National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Start date December 2012
End date December 2016
Trial size 42 participants
Trial identifier NCT01757639, 9214, CDR0000744584, J1276, NA_00076038, NCI-2012-02990, P30CA006973, U01CA070095, UM1CA186691, UM1CA186704


This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of ipilimumab and how well it works in treating patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia that has come back or no longer responds to treatment. Monoclonal antibodies, such as ipilimumab, may interfere with the ability of cancer cells to grow and spread.

United States No locations recruiting
Other countries No locations recruiting

Study Design

Intervention model single group assignment
Primary purpose treatment
Masking no masking
INDUCTION: Patients receive ipilimumab IV on day 1. Treatment repeats every 21 days for up to 4 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. MAINTENANCE: Beginning 12 weeks after last dose of induction ipilimumab, patients receive ipilimumab IV on day 1. Treatment repeats every 12 weeks for up to 4 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
ipilimumab Anti-Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen-4 Monoclonal Antibody
Given IV
laboratory biomarker analysis
Correlative studies

Primary Outcomes

Changes in percentages of T-regs
time frame: Baseline to up to 6 months post-treatment
Incidence of DLT of ipilimumab by grading and tabulation using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0
time frame: 42 days

Secondary Outcomes

Efficacy as defined by the International working group 2006 criteria for CR, PR, HI
time frame: Up to 6 months post-treatment
Lymphocyte counts
time frame: Baseline
Overall survival (OS)
time frame: From start of study to death, assessed up to 6 months post-treatment
Progression free survival (PFS)
time frame: From start of study to progression or death, assessed up to 6 months post-treatment
Rate of pre-treatment CR
time frame: Up to 6 months post-treatment
Rate of prior use of demethylating agents
time frame: Up to 6 months post-treatment
T cell receptor diversity
time frame: Baseline

Eligibility Criteria

All participants at least 18 years old.

Inclusion Criteria: - Patients must be able to understand and voluntarily sign an informed consent form - Able to adhere to the study visit schedule and other protocol requirements - Life expectancy of greater than 6 months - Must have one of the following diagnoses: - Pathologically confirmed chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with high risk features at the time of referral for trial as defined by: - Intermediate (INT)-2 or high International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score - Secondary MDS (defined as MDS developing in a patient with an antecedent hematologic disorder or any patient with prior chemotherapy or radiation exposure) - INT-1 MDS with excess blasts (>= 5% blasts in bone marrow [BM]) or red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependency - MDS progressing to oligoblastic acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with 21-30% BM blasts - CMML with >= 5% marrow blasts, or RBC or platelet transfusion-dependency, abnormal karyotype, or proliferative features (white blood cell count >=13,000/uL, splenomegaly on physical examination, or extramedullary disease) - All patients are required to have failed to respond or relapsed after an initial response to hypomethylating agents 5-azacitidine or decitabine or have refused to receive hypomethylating therapy; failure to respond is defined as failing to achieve a CR, PR or HI after at least 4 cycles of hypomethylating therapy; these patients could have received other therapies or not, but must have received hypomethylating therapy or have refused to receive hypomethylating therapy - Pathologically confirmed AML patients who have received one or two courses of induction chemotherapy or hypomethylating agent therapy AND no plans for further chemotherapy therapy, but remain with residual disease of < 5% blasts in BM, by morphology, cytogenetics, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or flow cytometry - Patients must not have received any other treatment for their disease, including hematopoietic growth factors, within three weeks of beginning the trial, and should have recovered from all toxicities of prior therapy (to grade 0 or 1) - Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of =< 2 at study entry ECOG, or Karnofsky >= 60% - Calculated creatinine clearance by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) (CrCL) > 50 ml/min/1.73 squared meter - Total bilirubin =< 2.0 mg/dL unless due to Gilbert's syndrome, hemolysis, or ineffective hematopoiesis - Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT]) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase [SGPT]) =< 3 x upper limit of normal (ULN) - Females of childbearing potential must have a negative serum or urine pregnancy test within 72 hours prior to start of ipilimumab - Patients must have no clinical evidence of central nervous system (CNS) or pulmonary leukostasis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, or CNS leukemia - Patients must have no serious or uncontrolled medical conditions Exclusion Criteria: - Any serious medical condition, uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, laboratory abnormality, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements or prevent the subject from signing the informed consent form - Pregnant or breast feeding females (lactating females must agree not to breast feed while taking ipilimumab) - Any condition, including the presence of laboratory abnormalities, which places the subject at unacceptable risk if he/she were to participate in the study or confounds the ability to interpret data from the study - Use of any other experimental drug or therapy within 21 days of baseline - Known hypersensitivity to ipilimumab or history of allergic reactions attributed to compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition to ipilimumab - Prior use of ipilimumab, other cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) blocking therapies, anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD 1) antibody, cluster of differentiation (CD) 137 agonist or other immune activating therapy such as anti-CD 40 antibody within the last 3 months of enrollment in the study; if any of these of these agents were used more than 3 months earlier to enrollment in study, the patient should have recovered from all toxicity and at least 3 months had passed since last use to allow for clearance and observation of any other side effects from the previous therapy - Concurrent use of other anti-cancer agents or treatments, including other investigational agents - Autoimmune disease: patients with a history of inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are excluded from this study, as are patients with a history of symptomatic disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, systemic progressive sclerosis [scleroderma], systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune vasculitis [e.g., Wegener's granulomatosis]); CNS or motor neuropathy considered of autoimmune origin (e.g. Guillain-Barre syndrome and Myasthenia Gravis, multiple sclerosis) - Patients with known immune impairment who may be unable to respond to anti-CTLA-4 antibody - Patients with known evidence of active cancers, or other cancer under active treatment; exceptions include patients with no evidence of disease receiving adjuvant hormone-based therapy or either breast or prostate cancer - Patients who have had chemotherapy or radiotherapy within 4 weeks (6 weeks for nitrosoureas or mitomycin C) prior to entering the study or those who have not recovered from adverse events due to agents administered more than 4 weeks earlier - Patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B or hepatitis C infections should be excluded because of potential effects on immune function and/ or possible drug interactions - Pregnant women are excluded from this study; breastfeeding should be discontinued if the mother is treated with ipilimumab

Additional Information

Official title A Phase 1 Study of Ipilimumab in Relapsed and Refractory High Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Residual Disease
Principal investigator B. Smith
Description PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: I. Evaluate the safety and toxicity associated with the administration of ipilimumab in terms of dose limiting toxicities (DLT), and maximally-tolerated dose (MTD) in a cohort of patients with high risk myelodysplastic syndrome who failed hypomethylating therapy, and patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who underwent induction therapy but are not planned for further intensive chemotherapy. (Dose-escalation) II. Determine the optimal dose of ipilimumab for the dose-expansion phase of the trial. (Dose-escalation) III. Better define immunologic profiles associated with ipilimumab use in terms of regulatory T-cells (T-regs) dynamic changes in 2 separate cohorts of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and AML patients at the optimal dose level. (Dose-expansion) IV. Obtain preliminary efficacy data of ipilimumab in terms of complete response (CR), partial response (PR), and hematological improvement (HI) in both cohorts. (Dose-expansion) SECONDARY OBJECTIVES: I. Define immunologic profiles associated with ipilimumab use in terms of T-regs dynamic changes at different dose levels. (Dose-escalation) II. Define toxicity profiles of ipilimumab at the optimal dose in both patient cohorts. (Dose-expansion) III. Obtain preliminary data on potential correlations between noted ipilimumab-induced immunologic changes and observed toxicity and clinical responses. (Dose-expansion) OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study. INDUCTION: Patients receive ipilimumab intravenously (IV) on day 1. Treatment repeats every 21 days for up to 4 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. MAINTENANCE: Beginning 12 weeks after last dose of induction ipilimumab, patients receive ipilimumab IV on day 1. Treatment repeats every 12 weeks for up to 4 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at least monthly for 6 months.
Trial information was received from ClinicalTrials.gov and was last updated in February 2017.
Information provided to ClinicalTrials.gov by National Cancer Institute (NCI).
Location data was received from the National Cancer Institute and was last updated in February 2017.