This trial is active, not recruiting.

Conditions hypercholesterolemia, buttermilk, dietary modification, cardiovascular disease
Treatments buttermilk without added egg-yolk, buttermilk with added egg yolk, skimmed milk with added egg-yolk, skimmed milk without added egg yolk
Sponsor Maastricht University Medical Center
Start date October 2010
End date July 2012
Trial size 108 participants
Trial identifier NCT01566305, NL33461.068.10


Rationale and objective:

Based on the results of a pilot study, the objective of the present study is to evaluate whether buttermilk lower serum LDL cholesterol concentrations and can prevent the serum LDL cholesterol raising effects of eggs.

Study Design:

The study has a randomized placebo-controlled factorial 2x2 design. The total study duration is 14 weeks, consisting of a 2 weeks run-in period and a 12 weeks experimental period. Subjects will be stratified for age, gender and BMI over the experimental groups.

Study population:

One hundred and eight healthy male and female subjects, aged 18-70 years, with slightly elevated serum total cholesterol concentrations (5.5-8.0 mmol/l).


During the entire study period, volunteers are instructed to consume a diet according to the Dutch dietary guidelines (35 en% fat (10 en% saturated fat), 50-55 en% carbohydrates). During the two weeks run-in period all subjects will drink daily at lunch 100 mL skimmed milk. During the 12 weeks experimental period, a first group of subjects will continue drinking the skimmed milk (control group), while a second group will consume a low-fat buttermilk, a third group skimmed milk enriched with egg-yolk, and a fourth group egg-yolk incorporated into a low-fat buttermilk based beverage. The egg-yolk will be enriched in lutein. Whole egg consumption (others than provided by us) is not allowed during the entire study.

Main study parameters/endpoints:

Measurements will be performed during the run-in period (days 0, 11 and 14) and during the experimental period (days 56, 95 and 98). The main effects (egg-yolk and buttermilk consumption) will be calculated as the absolute differences between values obtained at the end of the experimental (average days 95 and 98) and run-in (average days 11 and 14) periods. The primary endpoint is the change in serum LDL cholesterol concentrations. Secondary endpoints are changes in serum total and HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol, apoA-I, apoB and hsCRP concentrations.

United States No locations recruiting
Other Countries No locations recruiting

Study Design

Allocation randomized
Intervention model parallel assignment
Masking double blind (subject, caregiver, investigator, outcomes assessor)
Primary purpose prevention
buttermilk with added egg yolk
Buttermilk with added egg yolk
buttermilk without added egg-yolk
Buttermilk without added egg-yolk
skimmed milk with added egg-yolk
Skimmed milk with added egg-yolk
(Placebo Comparator)
skimmed milk without added egg yolk
Skimmed milk without added egg yolk

Primary Outcomes

Change in serum LDL cholesterol concentrations
time frame: LDL cholesterol will be measured at day 0, 11, 14, 56, 95 and 98 during the study

Secondary Outcomes

Changes in serum total and HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol, apoA-I, apoB and hsCRP concentrations
time frame: Serum total and HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol, apoA-I and ApoB will be measured at day 0, 11, 14, 56, 95 and 98 during the study. hsCRP concentrations will be measured at day 11, 14, 95 and 98.

Eligibility Criteria

Male or female participants from 18 years up to 70 years old.

Inclusion Criteria: - Aged between 18 and 70 years - Fasting serum total cholesterol between 5.5 - 8.0 mmol/l - Fasting plasma glucose < 7.0 mmol/l - BMI between 25-30 kg/m2 - non-smoking - Willingness to abstain for the duration of the study from egg consumption Exclusion Criteria: - unstable body weight (weight gain or loss >3 kg in the past 3 months) - allergic for eggs or egg-rich products - allergic or intolerant for cow-milk (lactose) based products - indication for treatment with cholesterol-lowering drugs according to the Dutch Cholesterol Consensus - use of medication or a diet known to affect serum lipid or glucose metabolism - active cardiovascular disease (for instance congestive heart failure) or recent (<6 months) event, such as acute myocardial infarction or cerebro-vascular accident - not willing to stop the consumption of vitamin supplements, fish oil capsules or products rich in plant stanol or sterol esters 3 weeks before the start of the study - men: consumption of >21 alcohol consumptions a week - women: consumption of >14 alcohol consumptions a week - abuse of drugs - pregnant or breastfeeding women - participation in another biomedical study within 1 month prior to the screening visit - having donated blood (as blood donor) within 1 month prior to the screening visit or planning to do so during the study - impossible or difficult venipuncture as evidenced during the screening visits

Additional Information

Official title The Effects of Buttermilk With or Without Lutein-enriched Egg Yolk on the Serum LDL Cholesterol Concentration of Slightly Hypercholesterolaemic Volunteers
Principal investigator Jogchum Plat, Dr.
Trial information was received from ClinicalTrials.gov and was last updated in March 2012.
Information provided to ClinicalTrials.gov by Maastricht University Medical Center.