This trial is active, not recruiting.

Condition rectal cancer
Treatments m1 scheme, standard long course chemoradiotherapy
Phase phase 3
Sponsor University Medical Center Groningen
Collaborator Karolinska University Hospital
Start date June 2011
End date January 2017
Trial size 920 participants
Trial identifier NCT01558921, 2010-023957-12, NL36315.042.11


Currently the 3-year disease free survival of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer is about 50%. Current standard treatment for patients at high risk of failing locally and/or systemically includes pre-operative long course radiotherapy (5 weeks) in combination with chemotherapy (so called neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy). The neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy has been demonstrated to improve local control, but had no effect on the overall survival. Different studies in patients with rectal cancer studying the effect of adjuvant post operative chemotherapy did not result in an improved survival. This may be due the fact that rectal cancer surgery (TME) is associated with a high complication rate so substantial proportion of patients cannot receive chemotherapy postoperatively. An alternative approach is to administer the systemic therapy preoperative. To guarantee control of the rectum tumor short-course radiotherapy (5 days) is given, as different studies showed local control of the tumor for a long time. During this waiting period the patient is in a good condition to receive an optimal dose of chemotherapy. The investigators hypothesize that with this proposed protocol both the local tumour and possible micrometastases are effectively treated and that this will result in an increased survival. The investigators will compare this with the standard treatment of neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by TME surgery and optional adjuvant chemotherapy.

United States No locations recruiting
Other countries No locations recruiting

Study Design

Allocation randomized
Endpoint classification efficacy study
Intervention model parallel assignment
Masking open label
Primary purpose treatment
experimental group (arm B) M1 scheme
m1 scheme
short course 5 x 5 Gy radiation scheme is followed by six cycles of combination chemotherapy (capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX)) and surgery. FOLFOX4 may be given as alternative for CAPOX
(Active Comparator)
control group (arm A) standard long course chemoradiotherapy
standard long course chemoradiotherapy
long course chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. Optional adjuvant chemotherapy (CAPOX or FOLFOX) is allowed in the control group.

Primary Outcomes

Time to disease related treatment failure (TdrTF)
time frame: 3 year

Secondary Outcomes

Overall survival
time frame: 5 year
CRM negative (margin > 1 mm) rate
time frame: within 30 days
Pathological complete response (pCR) rate
time frame: within 30 days
Short and long-term toxicity
time frame: 3 year
Surgical complications
time frame: 3 year
Quality of life
time frame: 3 year

Eligibility Criteria

Male or female participants at least 18 years old.

Inclusion Criteria: Primary tumour characteristics: 1. Histological proof of newly diagnosed primary adenocarcinoma of the rectum 2. Locally advanced tumour fulfilling at least one of the following criteria on pelvic MRI indicating high risk of failing locally and/or systemically (T4a, i.e. overgrowth to an adjacent organ or structure like the prostate, urinary bladder, uterus, sacrum, pelvic floor or side wall (according to TNM version 5), cT4b, i.e. peritoneal involvement, extramural vascular invasion (EMVI+). N2, i.e. four or more lymph nodes in the mesorectum showing morphological signs on MRI indicating metastatic disease. Positive MRF, i.e. tumor or lymph node < 1 mm from the mesorectal fascia. Enlarged lateral nodes, > 1 cm (lat LN+) Exclusion Criteria: 1. Extensive growth into cranial part of the sacrum (above S3) or the lumbosacral nerve roots indicating that surgery will never be possible even if substantial tumour down-sizing is seen 2. Presence of metastatic disease or recurrent rectal tumour 3. Familial Adenomatosis Polyposis coli (FAP), Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC), active Crohn¡¦s disease or active ulcerative Colitis 4. Concomitant malignancies, except for adequately treated basocellular carcinoma of the skin or in situ carcinoma of the cervix uteri. Subjects with prior malignancies must be disease-free for at least 5 years 5. Known DPD deficiency 6. Any contraindications to MRI (e.g. patients with pacemakers) 7. Medical or psychiatric conditions that compromise the patient's ability to give informed consent 8. Concurrent uncontrolled medical conditions 9. Any investigational treatment for rectal cancer within the past month 10. Pregnancy or breast feeding 11. Patients with known malabsorption syndromes or a lack of physical integrity of the upper gastrointestinal tract 12. Clinically significant (i.e. active) cardiac disease (e.g. congestive heart failure, symptomatic coronary artery disease and cardiac dysrhythmia, e.g. atrial fibrillation, even if controlled with medication) or myocardial infarction within the past 12 months 13. Patients with symptoms or history of peripheral neuropathy

Additional Information

Official title Randomized Multicentre Phase III Study of Short Course Radiation Therapy Followed by Prolonged Pre-operative Chemotherapy and Surgery in Primary High Risk Rectal Cancer Compared to Standard Chemoradiotherapy and Surgery and Optional Adjuvant Chemotherapy.
Principal investigator B. van Etten, Md, PhD
Description Patients will be randomized between an experimental group (arm B) in which short course 5 x 5 Gy radiation scheme is followed by six cycles of combination chemotherapy (capecitabine/5FU and oxaliplatin) and surgery and a control group (arm A) with long course chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. In arm A adjuvant chemotherapy is allowed according to the local protocol of the institution. In both groups the rectal tumour will be removed by TME surgery or more extensive surgery if required because of tumour extent.
Trial information was received from ClinicalTrials.gov and was last updated in June 2016.
Information provided to ClinicalTrials.gov by University Medical Center Groningen.
Location data was received from the National Cancer Institute and was last updated in June 2016.