This trial is active, not recruiting.

Condition nicotine addiction
Treatments saline, nicotine
Sponsor Yale University
Start date October 2011
End date June 2019
Trial size 64 participants
Trial identifier NCT01495819, 1010007514


The proposed study will examine the threshold for nicotine self-administration (NSA) using five different nicotine doses in young adult male and female non-dependent smokers (light and intermittent smokers or LITS). We propose a double-blind, placebo-controlled study that will enroll 195 individuals, targeting a total of 72 completers (36 male and 36 females). In each of the five experimental sessions, smokers will be randomly assigned to one of the five doses of nicotine (0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/70 kg). The highest dose, 0.2 mg/70 kg, corresponds to nicotine delivered by about one or two puffs of a cigarette. At the beginning of each experimental session, smokers will sample the assigned both the nicotine dose for that experimental session, and the placebo (saline) dose, followed by the opportunity to choose between nicotine and placebo for a total of ten choices over a 150-minute period. The main outcomes will be threshold dose (the minimum dose of nicotine that is self-administered more than placebo) and the slope of dose-response for nicotine self-administration (changes in nicotine self-administration per unit change in nicotine dose). We will also collect measures of nicotine intake (cotinine), nicotine clearance (3-hydroxycotinine (3-HC) / cotinine), and self-report drug effects

United States No locations recruiting
Other countries No locations recruiting

Study Design

Allocation randomized
Intervention model crossover assignment
Masking double blind (subject, investigator)
Primary purpose treatment
(Active Comparator)
subjects will be randomly assigned to one of the five doses of nicotine (0.0125, 0.025, 0.0.5, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/70 kg or about 0.18, 0.36, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.8 µg/kg). At the beginning of each experimental session, subjects will first sample the assigned nicotine dose and placebo (saline) condition that are randomly labeled as A or B. which may be nicotine or saline. This procedure will allow subjects to sample the nicotine and saline that will be available during that session. In addition, subjective and physiological responses to the sample nicotine dose and saline will be assessed.
nicotine IV nicotine
(0.0125, 0.025, 0.0.5, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/70 kg or about 0.18, 0.36, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.8 µg/kg).
(Placebo Comparator)
Subjects will have sample A and B, one being nicotine and one being saline. The doses will be blinded from PI, subject and staff. The subject must choose A or B for the next ten choices.
saline Placebo
5cc's of saline give at least once.

Primary Outcomes

time frame: 3 years to complete

Eligibility Criteria

Male or female participants from 18 years up to 30 years old.

Inclusion criteria: 1) Female and male smokers, aged 18 to30 years, who have been smoking for at least a year, and a life-time consumption of at least 100 cigarettes; 2) smoke more frequently than once a week and ≤5 cpd; 3) FTND score <3 indicating no or minimal evidence for nicotine dependence; 4) urine cotinine levels >100 ng/mL indicating smoking status and a level <1000 mg/mL consistent with nicotine intake of LITS; 5) not seeking treatment at the time of the study for nicotine dependence; 6) in good health as verified by medical history, screening examination, and screening laboratory tests; 7) for women, not pregnant as determined by pregnancy screening, nor breast feeding, and using acceptable birth control methods. Exclusion criteria: 1) history of major medical illnesses that the physician investigator deems as contraindicated for the subject to be in the study; 2) requirement of any form of regular psychotropic medication (antidepressants, antipsychotics, or anxiolytics) or psychiatric diagnosis and treatment for psychiatric disorders including major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia in the past 6 months; and 3) current dependence to alcohol or any other recreational or prescription drugs and; 4) daily use of smokeless tobacco products or exclusive daily use of e-cigarettes (non-daily users will be included).

Additional Information

Official title Nicotine Reinforcement and Aversion in Young Adult Light Smokers
Principal investigator Mehmet Sofuoglu, M.D,Ph.D.
Description Aim #1: To assess the threshold reinforcing dose and dose-effect curve for IV NSA at low doses in young adult LITS. Hypothesis #1A: The threshold reinforcing doses for IV NSA will be between 0.0125 to 0.1 mg/70 kg. Hypothesis #1B: The dose-effect curve for NSA will differ between males and females with relatively flat curve in female smokers. Aim #2: To assess the threshold and dose-effect curve for the positive and negative/aversive subjective effects of IV nicotine at low doses and its relationship to nicotine reinforcement. Hypothesis #2 A: The threshold for the positive effects will be between 0.0125 to 0.1 mg/70 kg, for the negative/aversive effect it will be ≥ 0.1 mg/70 kg. Hypothesis #2B: Nicotine reinforcement will be positively correlated with the positive and negatively correlated with the negative/aversive subjective effects of IV nicotine. Exploratory Aims: To examine the influence of nicotine clearance rate on nicotine reinforcement threshold and dose-effect curve.
Trial information was received from ClinicalTrials.gov and was last updated in June 2016.
Information provided to ClinicalTrials.gov by Yale University.