This trial is active, not recruiting.

Conditions cardiovascular diseases, cancer
Treatments vitamin d3, placebo
Sponsor University of Eastern Finland
Collaborator Academy of Finland
Start date September 2012
End date June 2018
Trial size 2495 participants
Trial identifier NCT01463813, FIND


The Finnish Vitamin D Trial (FIND) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 5-year supplementation study of the benefits and risks of vitamin D in the primary prevention of cardiovascular (CVD) and cancer among 18000 men 60 years or older and women 65 years or older.

[Edit 25.3.2015: Due to difficulties in recruitment and funding, the study size is approximately 2500 subjects, with a 550 subject subgroup with more detailed examinations]

The participants will be randomized to 3 groups with 6000 in each, with daily supplementation of either: 1) 40 µg/day (1600 IU) of vitamin D3, 2) 80 µg/day (3200 IU) of vitamin D3, or 3) placebo.

[Edit 15.3.2015: The 2500 subjects are randomized in 3 groups, approximately 830 subjects per group.]

Compliance, use of non-study drugs or supplements, diet, development of endpoints, and CVD and cancer risk factors will be assessed by questionnaires. Blood samples will be collected for assessment of effect modification by baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D, as well as for future ancillary studies of genetic/biochemical hypotheses. Event data will be obtained by record linkage from the national computerized hospitalization registry.

United States No locations recruiting
Other Countries No locations recruiting

Study Design

Allocation randomized
Endpoint classification efficacy study
Intervention model parallel assignment
Masking double blind (subject, caregiver, investigator, outcomes assessor)
Primary purpose prevention
(Placebo Comparator)
Placebo, no Vitamin D3
Inactive placebo
Vitamin D3 80 micrograms (3200 IU) per day
vitamin d3 Cholecalciferol
Vitamin D3 80 micrograms (3200 IU) per day
Vitamin D3 40 micrograms (1600 IU) per day
vitamin d3 Cholecalciferol
Vitamin D3 40 micrograms (1600 IU) per day

Primary Outcomes

Cardiovascular disease
time frame: 5 years
time frame: 5 years

Eligibility Criteria

Male or female participants at least 60 years old.

Inclusion Criteria: - Men 60 years or older - Women 65 years or older Exclusion Criteria: - Cardiovascular disease (including myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, angina pectoris, coronary artery bypass grafting, or percutaneous coronary intervention). - Cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer). - Any disease or state that raises a vitamin D related safety concern (such as chronic liver, thyroid or kidney disease, hypercalcemia, sarcoidosis or other granulomatous diseases such as active chronic tuberculosis or Wegener's granulomatosis). - Use of supplements yielding vitamin D over 20 µg/day or calcium over 1200 mg/day and unwillingness to discontinue the use.

Additional Information

Official title Finnish Vitamin D Trial (FIND)
Principal investigator Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, MD, PhD
Description More detailed description available upon request.
Trial information was received from ClinicalTrials.gov and was last updated in May 2016.
Information provided to ClinicalTrials.gov by University of Eastern Finland.