Overview

This trial is active, not recruiting.

Conditions tobacco use cessation, smoking cessation, smoking, tobacco use disorder
Treatment brief intervention with nrt initiation
Sponsor Yale University
Collaborator National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Start date October 2010
End date April 2013
Trial size 778 participants
Trial identifier NCT01328431, 0907005437, R01CA141479

Summary

This study will test the effectiveness of an Emergency Department (ED) initiated tobacco intervention which includes counseling and medication. Our proposed intervention combines a Brief Negotiated Interview (BNI) with initiation of nicotine patch and gum in the ED, as well as a faxed referral to the state's Smokers' Quitline. A 6 week supply of nicotine patches and nicotine gum are provided to subjects in the intervention arm. Subjects randomized to the control arm will receive a brochure from the state's Smokers' Quitline only.

The primary hypothesis is that the intervention will be superior to the control condition in reducing self-reported and biochemically verified 7-day tobacco abstinence at 3 months.

United States No locations recruiting
Other Countries No locations recruiting

Study Design

Allocation randomized
Endpoint classification efficacy study
Intervention model parallel assignment
Masking double blind (subject, caregiver, investigator)
Primary purpose treatment
Arm
(No Intervention)
Subjects receive a brochure for the state's Smokers' Quitline only.
(Experimental)
Subjects receive a 6 week course of NRT, a motivational Brief Negotiated Interview, and a facilitated referral to the state's Smokers' Quitline.
brief intervention with nrt initiation
Brief Negotiated Interview is a manual-guided therapy designed for the ED setting. The purpose is to assist subjects to change some aspect of their smoking and to decide to start nicotine replacement therapy while in the ED. It combines techniques from motivational interviewing and stages of change. a 6-week supply of nicotine replacement therapy is given in the form of patches and gum and subjects are encouraged to use both concurrently. Patches come in 21 mg, 14 mg, and 7 mg doses and the dosage is determined based on how many cigarettes per day a subject is smoking. All subjects receive 400 pieces of 2 mg nicotine gum. All subjects complete a referral form for the state's Smokers' Quitline which is then faxed directly to the Quitline's vendor.

Primary Outcomes

Measure
Biochemical verification of tobacco abstinence
time frame: 3 months after enrollment
Self-report of tobacco abstinence or reduction
time frame: 3 months

Secondary Outcomes

Measure
Self-reported tobacco reduction or abstinence
time frame: 1 month post enrollment
Health care service utilization
time frame: 1 month post enrollment
Self-reported tobacco reduction or abstinence
time frame: 12 months post enrollment
Health care service utilization
time frame: 3 months post enrollment
Health care service utilization
time frame: 12 months post enrollment

Eligibility Criteria

Male or female participants at least 18 years old.

Inclusion Criteria: - Age > 18 years - Speaks English - Willing and able to give informed consent - >100 cigarettes lifetime - Current daily or some day smoker - Smokes > 5 cigarettes/day - Medicaid or self-pay insurance Exclusion Criteria: - Too ill or unable to consent - Not interested in study participation - Not interested in quitting - Pregnant, nursing, or trying to conceive - Current use of tobacco cessation products (patch, gum, inhaler, nasal spray, lozenge, e-cigarette) - Actively psychotic or mentally ill - Leaving ED against medical advice - Investigator discretion - Lives outside of New Haven County - Does not have phone with CT area code - In police custody - History of allergic reaction to nicotine replacement products - Currently receiving formal tobacco dependence tx - Currently taking Zyban, Wellbutrin (bupropion) or Chantix(varenicline) - Resides in an extended care facility

Additional Information

Official title Treating Low-Income Smokers in the Hospital Emergency Department
Principal investigator Steven L. Bernstein, MD
Description Of the nation's 45 million adult smokers, nearly 20 million visit hospital emergency departments (EDs) each year. ED patients, particularly smokers, are disproportionately low-income, with limited access to traditional primary care settings. Patients presenting to the ED with a tobacco-related trigger event, like an asthma attack, may be experiencing a "teachable moment." Thus, the ED may be an ideal location in which to identify smokers and initiate treatment for tobacco dependence. Initial pilot research by our group has demonstrated the feasibility of ED-based brief interventions for smokers. Based on our feasibility studies, the Institute of Medicine 2006 report on tobacco and the 2008 US Public Health Service guidelines now list EDs as appropriate loci for tobacco control efforts. This study aims to test the efficacy of an ED-initiated tobacco intervention which includes counseling and medication. The intervention—Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT)—uses a form of motivational interviewing known as the Brief Negotiation Interview (BNI). Our proposed intervention combines a BNI with initiation of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and a fax referral to the state Smokers' Quitline during the ED visit. A 6-week starter kit of NRT (patch and/or gum, tailored to level of addiction and patient preference) will be provided with written materials. The initial dose of NRT will be given in the ED. A trained nurse will administer the booster intervention via telephone 3 days post-visit. The SBIRT+NRT arm will be compared to standard care (SC), which consists of written materials only, in a controlled trial of 778 smokers age 18 years or older randomized in a 1:1 fashion. The primary hypothesis is that SBIRT+NRT will be superior to SC in reducing self-reported and biochemically verified 7-day tobacco abstinence at 3 months. Secondary hypotheses include: (1) Patients with a tobacco related diagnosis for the ED visit will have a higher cessation rate than patients without a tobacco related diagnosis, and (2) Patients who believe their ED visit is smoking-related will have a higher quit rate than others. The investigators will conduct a cost benefit analysis of the interventions. Follow-up assessments at 1, 3 and 12 months will combine self-report with in-person carbon monoxide testing at 3 months for smokers who assert abstinence via phone. Expansions of the proposed project as compared to earlier studies include: 1) initiation of NRT during the ED visit; 2) provision of multiple forms of NRT; 3) a proactive referral made to the Quitline; 4)a credible control condition with minimal baseline assessment, to avoid the assessment reactivity seen in similar ED studies; and 5) an economic analysis of the tested interventions.
Trial information was received from ClinicalTrials.gov and was last updated in September 2013.
Information provided to ClinicalTrials.gov by Yale University.