Overview

This trial is active, not recruiting.

Conditions kidney transplantation, rituximab, living donors, immunology, virus
Treatments rituximab, living donor transplantation, deceased donor transplantation
Phase phase 2
Target CD20
Sponsor University of Giessen
Collaborator Heidelberg University
Start date January 2010
End date May 2019
Trial size 85 participants
Trial identifier NCT01136395, 2009-012198-36, NTx-RTx-LD-001

Summary

This project comprises immunological and virological analyses within a prospective clinical study of Rituximab (Rtx)-treated blood group incompatible living donor (LD) renal transplant recipients compared to blood group compatible LD recipients without Rtx induction, and of living donor compared to deceased donor renal transplant recipients treated with tacrolimus (Tacr)/mycophenolate sodium (MPS). Aim of this project is to assess short- and long-term effects of immunosuppressive therapy (Rtx induction) and of living donation on immunological and histological parameters of graft outcome and on viral replication (BK, JC, CMV, EBV) with the potential to improve long-term graft outcome and to enable risk estimation of virus disease.

United States No locations recruiting
Other Countries No locations recruiting

Study Design

Allocation non-randomized
Endpoint classification safety/efficacy study
Intervention model parallel assignment
Masking open label
Primary purpose treatment
Arm
(Active Comparator)
Living donor (LD) kidney transplantation, ABO incompatible (ABOi); Immunosuppressive treatment: Tacrolimus (Tacr)/ Mycophenolate sodium (MPS), Basiliximab induction, Rtx induction
rituximab ABOi LD NTx
375mg/m2 4 weeks before ABO incompatible LD transplantation
living donor transplantation ABOc LD NTx
living donor transplantation (ABO compatible) to be compared with deceased donor transplantation (ABO compatible) in its impact on immunological parameters of graft outcome and on viral replication (CMV, EBV, BK/JC), respectively
(Active Comparator)
Living donor (LD) kidney transplantation, ABO compatible (ABOc); Immunosuppressive treatment: Tacr/MPS, Basiliximab induction
living donor transplantation ABOc LD NTx
living donor transplantation (ABO compatible) to be compared with deceased donor transplantation (ABO compatible) in its impact on immunological parameters of graft outcome and on viral replication (CMV, EBV, BK/JC), respectively
(Active Comparator)
Deceased donor (DD) kidney transplantation, ABO compatible; Immunosuppressive treatment: Tacr/MPS, Basiliximab induction
deceased donor transplantation DD NTx
deceased donor transplantation (ABO compatible) to be compared with living donor transplantation (ABO compatible) in its impact on immunological parameters of graft outcome and on viral replication (CMV, EBV, BK/JC), respectively

Primary Outcomes

Measure
Impact of Rtx on immune parameters predictive of graft outcome including B cell responses
time frame: 5 years posttransplant
Impact of living donation on immune parameters predictive of graft outcome including B cell responses
time frame: 5 years posttransplant
Impact of Rtx on virus replication (EBV, CMV, BK/JC)
time frame: 5 years posttransplant
Impact of living donation on virus replication (EBV, CMV, BK/JC)
time frame: 5 years posttransplant

Secondary Outcomes

Measure
Patient and graft survival
time frame: 5 years posttransplant
Graft function and proteinuria
time frame: 5 years posttransplant
Incidence of acute rejection
time frame: 5 years posttransplant
Incidence of chronic allograft dysfunction
time frame: 5 years posttransplant
Incidence of severe infectious disease
time frame: 5 years posttransplant
Incidence of malignancy
time frame: 5 years posttransplant
Incidence of side effects associated with Rtx
time frame: 5 years posttransplant

Eligibility Criteria

Male or female participants at least 18 years old.

Inclusion Criteria: - De-novo kidney transplantation - Deceased donors (blood group compatible) and living donors (blood group incompatible / blood group compatible) - First, second and third renal transplants - Immunized and non-immunized graft recipients - Age of recipients 18 years or older - Negative pregnancy test before transplantation Exclusion Criteria: - Contra-indications to use Tacr and MPS, respectively - Contra-indications to use Rtx in the group of ABOi LD transplants - Chronic hepatitis B, C or HIV infection - Recurrent infectious disease - Previous hepatitis B, if no prophylactic antiviral therapy is used - Previous tuberculosis - Hemoglobin<8,5g/dl, thrombocytes<80.000/ul or leucocytes<3000/ul - Previous vaccination with a living vaccine <4 weeks pretransplant - Significant enterogastric disease such as diverticulitis (contra-indicates MPS treatment) - Children and adolescents (age less than 18 years) - Pregnancy and breast-feeding women - Refusal of an effective contraception in women capable of bearing children - Combined transplantations such as simultaneous islet/kidney transplants

Additional Information

Official title Impact of Rituximab Induction and Living Donation on Immunoregulation and Virus Control in Renal Transplantation - a Prospective Pilot Study
Principal investigator Rolf Weimer, Prof. Dr.
Description Objective. Blood group incompatible (ABOi) LD renal transplantation represents a recognized treatment modality in Germany. In this setting, ethical considerations allow for a detailed study of short- and long-term immunological and virological effects of Rtx induction therapy, including sequential protocol biopsies. In the proposed project we will perform analyses on peripheral blood, iliac lymph nodes and protocol biopsies. Protocol biopsies are routinely obtained 3 and 12 months posttransplant at the Universities of Giessen and Freiburg. In this prospective, open pilot study, immunological parameters of graft outcome and control of polyomavirus, EBV and CMV replication will be compared between RTx-treated ABOi LD renal transplant recipients (n=25-30, group 1) and blood group compatible LD renal transplant recipients without Rtx induction (n=25-30, group 2) but otherwise comparable immunosuppressive treatment (MPS and Tacr, switch to Tacr-MR (modified release) within 2 weeks posttransplant; follow-up of 5 years). The same analyses will be done in DD renal transplant recipients treated with Tacr (switch to Tacr-ME) and MPS (n=25-30, group 3). This study design allows to analyze the impact of living donation on immunoregulation and virus control (groups 2 versus 3). Background. There is growing evidence that humoral mechanisms play a major role in chronic allograft dysfunction, which was shown to be significantly associated with de-novo formation of donor-specific HLA antibodies. However, B cells appear to act not only in humoral responses against the graft but may play a significant role in T-cell mediated antidonor responses due to their role as effective antigen-presenting cells. This is further suggested by the fact that Rtx is effective in primarily T-cell mediated diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis. Hypothesis/specific aims. We hypothesize that Rtx induction may alter immunoregulation short- and long-term after renal transplantation with the potential to improve long-term outcome. Graft protective effects of Rtx induction may be provided by B cell depletion and the resulting effects on humoral as well as T cell responses, and also by altered responses after B cell repopulation. Possible negative effects of Rtx on polyomavirus and CMV control as well as protective effects on EBV replication, de-novo monoclonal gammopathy and regulation of lymphoma growth factors (IL-6, IL-10) will be analyzed. Furthermore, B cell subset analysis in peripheral blood and the probably associated impact of Rtx on B cell depletion in graft draining iliac lymph nodes may enable us to establish an optimized Rtx dosage and thereby allow successful ABOi renal transplantation without the currently observed 15% drop outs. Preliminary results. We have performed clinical studies showing the predictive power of immune parameters such as regulatory anti-Fab autoantibodies, sCD30, CD4 helper activity, and CD4 cell IL-4 and IL-10 responses on graft outcome. The long-term effect of Rtx induction therapy and of living donation on these parameters will be analyzed. Previously, we found that patients at risk of polyomavirus nephropathy may be recognized early posttransplant by sequential rt-PCR assessment of polyomavirus replication in urine. Sequential rt-PCR testing of polyomavirus replication in urine and plasma will be used to analyze effects of Rtx induction on polyomavirus control. Proposed methods. Immune parameters will be analyzed mainly pretransplant, 3 months and 1, 2 and 5 years posttransplant. Flow cytometry (including regulatory T cells, B cell subsets, expression of cytokine receptors, costimulatory and adhesion molecules), mitogen-stimulated allogeneic cocultures, protein-A plaque assay (B cell responses, CD4 helper activity), intracellular cytokine analysis of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells and monocytes, rt-PCR for virological studies (BK, JC, CMV, EBV) and immunofluorescent staining of iliac lymph nodes (obtained at time of transplantation) and protocol biopsies will be used. Donor-specific antibodies will be detected using lymphocytotoxicity, HLA class I and II ELISA and Luminex assays. Donor-specificity will be confirmed by T- and B-cell crossmatch with donor cells. Regulatory IgG and IgA anti-Fab autoantibodies, neopterin and sCD30 will be assessed by ELISA. Expected results. We expect that Rtx induction will show an impact on immunological parameters of graft outcome, such as de-novo posttransplant antidonor HLA antibody formation. This pilot study may allow for improved long-term kidney graft outcome in recipients with immunologic risk parameters by virtue of patient-tailored immunosuppressive therapy. In ABOi renal transplantation, this study may prevent the current 15% drop out rates by allowing an optimized Rtx dosage based on the intended dose response analysis (B cell subset analysis in blood and graft draining lymph nodes). Furthermore, this study will allow risk estimation of Rtx administration with respect to CMV and polyomavirus replication, and may provide clues concerning protection against EBV replication and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. The latter point is of great clinical importance in patients with an enhanced PTLD risk such as EBV negative recipients of EBV positive grafts.
Trial information was received from ClinicalTrials.gov and was last updated in May 2016.
Information provided to ClinicalTrials.gov by University of Giessen.