Association Between Smoking, Brain Activity, Genes, and ADHD
This trial has been completed.
|Conditions||smoking, withdrawal nicotine, adhd|
|Treatments||cigarette smoking, abstinence|
|Sponsor||University of California, Irvine|
|Collaborator||National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)|
|Start date||July 2009|
|End date||January 2016|
|Trial size||89 participants|
|Trial identifier||NCT00915798, HS 2009-6740, K01DA025131|
The study investigated the underlying mechanisms of smoking in young adults by examining the associations between smoking, brain activity, dopamine genes, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
time frame: One MRI session for nonsmokers and two MRI sessions for smokers
time frame: one time blood draw
time frame: Once per week for 4 weeks
All participants from 18 years up to 45 years old.
Inclusion Criteria: 1. Smokers with ADHD - Cigarette smoking for the last year - ADHD diagnosis 2. Nonsmokers with ADHD - No history of regularly smoking cigarettes - ADHD diagnosis 3. Normative control smokers - Cigarette smoking for the last year - No history and diagnosis of ADHD 4. Normative control nonsmokers - No history of regularly smoking cigarettes - No history and diagnosis of ADHD Exclusion Criteria: - Children under the age of 18 - Adults above the age of 45 - Pregnancy or planning to become pregnant - Any major medical illness - Any mental disorders that require medication (except stimulant medication) - Any contraindications to fMRI scanning - Not speaking English
|Official title||Smoking, Neurocircuitry and Genes in Adult ADHD|
|Principal investigator||Jean-G. Gehricke, Ph.D., M.A.|
|Description||The study investigated the underlying mechanisms of smoking in young adults by examining the associations between smoking, brain activity, dopamine genes, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Four groups of young adults were recruited: (1) smokers with ADHD; (2) nonsmokers with ADHD; (3) normative control smokers; and (4) normative control nonsmokers. Smoking was assessed via questionnaires and salivary cotinine levels. Brain activity was examined via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Each nonsmoker underwent an fMRI scan during an experimental task consisting of mathematical problems. Smokers underwent two fMRI scans during similar experimental tasks under the following two conditions: (1) after smoking a cigarette and (2) after overnight abstinence. The association between the DRD4-7 repeat allele and smoking was explored.|
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