Association Between Smoking, Brain Activity, Genes, and ADHD
This trial is active, not recruiting.
|Treatment||cigarette smoking versus withdrawal in smokers|
|Sponsor||University of California, Irvine|
|Collaborator||National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)|
|Start date||April 2009|
|End date||June 2017|
|Trial size||80 participants|
|Trial identifier||NCT00915798, HS 2009-6740, K01DA025131|
The study investigates the underlying mechanisms of smoking in 100 young adults by examining the associations between smoking, prefrontal-limbic brain circuitry, dopamine genes, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Four groups of young adults will be recruited: (1) smokers with ADHD; (2) nonsmokers with ADHD; (3) normative control smokers; and (4) normative control nonsmokers. Smoking will be assessed via questionnaires and salivary cotinine levels. Prefrontal-limbic brain circuitry will be examined via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Candidate genes will be the dopamine receptor (DRD4) and transporter (DAT1). Each nonsmoker will undergo an fMRI scan during an experimental task consisting of mathematical problems and unpleasant and neutral pictures. Smokers will undergo two fMRI scans during similar experimental tasks under the following two conditions: (1) after smoking a cigarette and (2) after overnight abstinence. The findings will provide information on the effects of smoking and abstinence on prefrontal-limbic brain circuitry in smokers with and without ADHD.
Brain Circuitry x Genes x ADHD x Smoking
time frame: Up to two sessions
Male or female participants from 18 years up to 45 years old.
Inclusion Criteria: 1. Smokers with ADHD - Cigarette smoking for the last year - ADHD diagnosis 2. Nonsmokers with ADHD - No history of regularly smoking cigarettes - ADHD diagnosis 3. Normative control smokers - Cigarette smoking for the last year - No history and diagnosis of ADHD 4. Normative control nonsmokers - No history of regularly smoking cigarettes - No history and diagnosis of ADHD Exclusion Criteria: - Children under the age of 18 - Adults above the age of 45 - Pregnancy or planning to become pregnant - Any major medical illness - Any mental disorders that require medication (except stimulant medication) - Any contraindications to fMRI scanning - Not speaking English
|Official title||Smoking, Neurocircuitry and Genes in Adult ADHD|
|Principal investigator||Jean-G. Gehricke, Ph.D., M.A.|
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