This trial is active, not recruiting.

Condition colorectal cancer
Treatments open laparotomy and rectal resection, laparoscopic-assisted rectal resection
Phase phase 3
Sponsor Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology
Collaborator National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Start date August 2008
End date October 2013
Trial size 486 participants
Trial identifier NCT00726622, ACOSOG-Z6051, CDR0000601816, NCI-2009-00350, U10CA076001


This study is being done to compare two types of surgery currently used for rectal cancer. The two types of surgery are laparoscopic-assisted rectal resection and open laparotomy rectal resection. Although laparoscopic-assisted rectal resection is being used for rectal cancer in some medical centers, the effectiveness of this type of surgery compared to open surgery is unknown. The study will compare the safety and effectiveness of the surgeries, recovery from surgery in the hospital, overall recovery from surgery and cancer outcome.

United States No locations recruiting
Other countries No locations recruiting

Study Design

Allocation randomized
Intervention model parallel assignment
Masking open label
Primary purpose treatment
(Active Comparator)
Patients undergo open laparotomy and rectal resection. The standard form of surgery is open laparotomy rectal resection. During open laparotomy, the surgeon makes a large incision or cut in the abdomen, and goes in through that cut to remove the tumor and lymph nodes from the rectum.
open laparotomy and rectal resection
Patients undergo open laparotomy and rectal resection.
Patients undergo laparoscopic-assisted rectal resection. Laparoscopic-assisted rectal resection is performed using small instruments on long handles introduced into the abdomen through small ports called trocars in 3 - 6 positions on the abdomen through incisions measuring 5 -10 mm, under the guidance of a video camera. The abdominal wall is held up with carbon dioxide under pressure. The piece of bowel or intestine is removed through another incision (about 8 centimeters), and the ends of the intestine are reconnected to provide normal bowel function.
laparoscopic-assisted rectal resection
Patients undergo laparoscopic-assisted rectal resection.

Primary Outcomes

Circumferential margin > 1 mm
time frame: At time of surgery
Negative distal resected margin
time frame: At time of surgery
Completeness of total mesorectal excision (complete or nearly complete)
time frame: At time of surgery

Secondary Outcomes

Patient-related benefit (length of stay, operative times and use of pain medication)
time frame: Up to 5 years post surgery
Disease-free survival
time frame: Up to 2 years post surgery
Local pelvic recurrence rates
time frame: Up to 2 years post surgery
Overall survival
time frame: Up to 5 years post surgery
Quality of life and sexual function
time frame: Up to 5 years post surgery
Bowel function
time frame: Up to 5 years post surgery
Bowel and stoma function
time frame: Up to 5 years post surgery

Eligibility Criteria

Male or female participants at least 18 years old.

Eligibility Criteria: 1. Histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the rectum (≤ 12 cm from the anal verge) 2. T3, N0, M0, T1-3, N1-2, M0 disease as determined by pre-neoadjuvant therapy CT scans and pelvic MRI or transrectal ultrasound. Patients with T4 disease are not eligible. 3. Completion of pre-operative 5FU based chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Capecitabine may be substituted for 5FU. 4. Age ≥ 18 years 5. ECOG (Zubrod) Performance Status ≤ 2 6. Body Mass Index (BMI) ≤ 34 7. No evidence of conditions that would preclude use of a laparoscopic approach (eg, multiple previous major laparotomies, severe adhesions) 8. No systemic disease (cardiovascular, renal, hepatic) that would preclude surgery. No other severe incapacitating disease: - ASA IV: A patient with severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to life. OR - ASA V: A moribund patient who is not expected to survive without the operation. 9. No concurrent or previous invasive pelvic malignancy (cervical, uterine and rectal) within five years prior to registration 10. No history of psychiatric or addictive disorders or other conditions that, in the opinion of the investigator, would preclude the patient from meeting the study requirements. NOTE: Incompetent patients are not eligible for this trial.

Additional Information

Official title A Phase III Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Laparoscopic-Assisted Resection Versus Open Resection for Rectal Cancer
Description This is a multicenter study. Patients eligible for this trial will have completed 5FU based neoadjuvant chemotherapy/radiation therapy per the institution's standard of care or IRB approved clinical trial. Patients may be registered/randomized anytime after completion of neoadjuvant therapy, but surgery must occur within 4-12 weeks (28-84 days) after completion of neoadjuvant therapy. Patients are stratified according to the site of the primary tumor (high, middle or low rectum), registering surgeon, and planned operative procedure (low anterior resection or abdominal perineal resection). Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms. Please see the arms section for more details. The primary and secondary objectives are listed below. Primary Objective: To test the hypothesis that laparoscopic-assisted resection for rectal cancer is not inferior to open rectal resection, based on a composite primary endpoint of oncologic factors which are indicative of a safe and feasible operation. Secondary Objectives: 1. To assess patient-related benefit of laparoscopic-assisted resection for rectal cancer vs. open rectal resection (blood loss, length of stay, pain medicine utilization) 2. To assess disease free survival and local pelvic recurrence at two years. 3. To assess quality of life, sexual function, bowel and stoma function at scheduled time points throughout the trial. Patients will be evaluated after surgery to determine the need for subsequent care based on the final pathology. Patients should not start treatment on any other investigative trial involving intervention or invasive diagnostic procedures ≤ 30 days following surgery to enable a complete evaluation of post-operative adverse events and complications occurring within 30 days of surgery. Patients are followed periodically for up to 5 years post surgery.
Trial information was received from ClinicalTrials.gov and was last updated in July 2016.
Information provided to ClinicalTrials.gov by Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology.