Overview

This trial is active, not recruiting.

Conditions type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, diet therapy
Treatments whole wheat and bran muffin, mixed tree nuts
Phase phase 2
Sponsor University of Toronto
Start date December 2006
End date December 2008
Trial size 90 participants
Trial identifier NCT00410722, REB 06-274

Summary

To determine if tree nuts (Almonds, Hazelnuts, Pistachios, Peanuts, Macadamia nuts, Pecans, Walnuts and Cashews) improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, as assessed by HbA1c and serum fructosamine, and to assess whether these outcomes relate to improvements in cardiovascular health (i.e. plasma lipids and measures of oxidative stress, inflammatory biomarkers and nitric oxide generation). The investigators have found that nuts tend to reduce the glycemic index of bread and have little effect of raising blood glucose on their own. Therefore the investigators believe that they would be ideal foods to displace high glycemic foods from the diet and lower the dietary glycemic load. This will result in improved blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes, with additional benefits on coronary heart disease risk factors due to other effects of nuts.

United States No locations recruiting
Other Countries No locations recruiting

Study Design

Allocation randomized
Endpoint classification efficacy study
Intervention model parallel assignment
Masking single blind (outcomes assessor)
Primary purpose treatment
Arm
(Experimental)
Subjects will be given tree nuts (almonds, hazelnuts, pistachios, macadamia nuts, pecans, walnuts, and cashews) and peanuts (at a predetermined amount to consume based on their recommended energy intake), and advised to follow a diabetic diet.
mixed tree nuts
(Experimental)
Subjects will be given tree nuts (almonds, hazelnuts, pistachios, macadamia nuts, pecans, walnuts, and cashews) and peanuts as well as the control supplement (wheat bran muffin)(at a predetermined amount to consume based on their recommended energy intake), and advised to follow a diabetic diet.
whole wheat and bran muffin
mixed tree nuts
(Active Comparator)
Subjects will be given a control supplement (wheat bran muffin)(at a predetermined amount to consume based on their recommended energy intake), and advised to follow a diabetic diet.
whole wheat and bran muffin

Primary Outcomes

Measure
Markers of glycemic control: Fasting serum fructosamine
time frame: From prestudy and week 0, to end of treatment weeks 8, 10, 12
Fasting serum HbA1c
time frame: From prestudy and week 0, to end of treatment weeks 8, 10, and 12
Fasting glucose
time frame: From prestudy and week 0, to end of treatment and weeks 8, 10, and 12
Fasting insulin
time frame: From prestudy and week 0, to end of treatment and weeks 8, 10, and 12

Secondary Outcomes

Measure
24h urinary C-peptide excretion
time frame: From prestudy and week 0, to end of treatment weeks 8, 10, and 12
Branched chain amino acids
time frame: From prestudy and week 0, to end of treatment weeks 8, 10, and 12
Serum triglyceride
time frame: From prestudy and week 0, to end of treatment weeks 8, 10, and 12
Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride
time frame: From prestudy and week 0, to end of treatment weeks 8, 10, and 12
VLDL-C
time frame: From prestudy and week 0, to end of treatment weeks 8, 10, and 12
LDL:HDL-C
time frame: From prestudy and week 0, to end of treatment weeks 8, 10, and 12
Apolipoprotein B:A1
time frame: From prestudy and week 0, to end of treatment weeks 8, 10, and 12
Lipoprotein(a)
time frame: From prestudy and week 0, to end of treatment weeks 8, 10, and 12
oxidized LDL
time frame: From beginning of study, week 0, to end of treatment week 12
markers of oxidative stress
time frame: From beginning of study, week 0, to end of treatment week 12
C-reactive protein
time frame: From prestudy and week 0, to end of treatment weeks 8, 10, and 12
markers of inflammation
time frame: From prestudy and week 0, to end of treatment weeks 8, 10, and 12
Cancer cell proliferation
time frame: From beginning of study, week 0, to end of treatment week 12

Eligibility Criteria

Male or female participants at least 21 years old.

Inclusion Criteria: - Men and post menopausal women with type 2 diabetes treated with diet plus oral hypoglycemic agents (sulfonylureas (glyburide), biguanides (metformin), Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and new secretagogues (Repaglinide)) at a stable dose for at least 3 months prior to starting the study; - HbA1c of 6.5 to 8.0% as a compromise between those whose levels are acceptable and the level which is currently considered unacceptable. - Diabetes diagnosed >6 months prior to randomization - Weight stable within 3% body weight >2 months. Exclusion Criteria: - Use of acarbose - Use of Insulin - Known nut allergies - Clinically significant gastroparesis - Use of steroids - Presence of GI disease (celiac disease, ulcerative colitis, and Crohns) - Major cardiovascular event (stroke or myocardial infarction) - Major surgery < 6 months prior to randomization - Presence of major debilitating disorder such as clinically significant liver disease (not including non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) but including cirrhosis, infectious hepatitis (B and C), aspartate transaminase (AST) or alanine transaminase (ALT) > 130 IU/L) - Renal failure (high creatinine > 150 mmol/L) - Serum triglyceride > 6 mmol/L. - Patients currently undergoing treatment for cancer with the exception of non-melanoma skin cancer, but not high risk patients or those whose treatment has been successfully completed.

Additional Information

Official title Effect of Nuts on Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Type 2 Diabetes
Principal investigator David JA Jenkins, MD, PhD
Description The investigators wish to study the effect of nuts on glycemic control and to confirm their lipid lowering effects in type 2 diabetes. The consumption of nuts with their high unsaturated fat, vegetable protein (arginine) and fiber contents will decrease the glycemic load of the diet and improve glycemic control. The investigators anticipate that the favorable fatty acid profile of nuts along with the vegetable protein will improve the blood lipid profile in type 2 diabetes and thereby establish a cardiovascular risk reduction associated with nuts in this population. Furthermore, flavonoids and vitamin E present in high concentrations in nuts, and known to have antioxidant activity may help to counter the elevated oxidative stress and inflammation experienced by diabetics. The investigators will therefore determine the effect of nut feeding on measures of oxidative stress (including oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), considered to be of direct relevance to coronary heart disease), inflammation (C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and interleukin-6) and nitric oxide metabolism (blood nitric oxide and nitrotyrosine levels). These data would further add to interest in nuts in relation to cardiovascular disease risk reduction and diabetic complications. Background Diet: A diet conforming to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Nuts, soy and dietary supplements (vitamins, minerals, herbal remedies) will be excluded in the background diet during all phases of the study. Treatment diets:(1) Full-Dose Nut Diet: Raw nuts will be added as supplements to the subject's usual diet. Subjects with calorie needs of 2,400 kcal or greater, assessed by Lipid Research Clinic (LRC) tables, will receive the full-dose supplement (100 g/d of nuts, approximately 600 kcal). Subjects requiring between 1,600-2,400 kcal daily will receive 75% of the full-dose supplement (75 g/d of nuts, approximately 450 kcal). Subjects requiring less than 1,600 kcal daily will receive 50% of the full-dose supplement (50 g/d of nuts, approximately 300 kcal). (2) Half-Dose Nut Diet: Raw nuts will be added as supplements to the subject's usual diet. Subjects with calorie needs of 2,400 kcal or greater, assessed by LRC tables, will receive half of the full dose of the nut supplement (50 g/d of nuts, approximately 300 kcal) with the rest of the calories provided by the muffin (2 muffins are 300 kcal) for a total of 600 kcal. Subjects requiring between 1,600-2,400 kcal daily will receive 75% of the half-dose supplement (37.5 g/d of nuts and 1.5 muffins, approximately 450 kcal). Subjects requiring less than 1,600 kcal daily will receive 50% of the half-dose supplement (25 g/d of nuts and 1 muffin, approximately 300 kcal). (3): The full-dose control supplement will be four 150 kcal muffins. Control supplements will be matched with the energy content of the nut supplements, i.e. either 600 kcal/d (4 muffins); 450 kcal/d (3 muffins); 300 kcal/d (2 muffins). The macronutrient composition of the muffins will conform to an NCEP Step 2 diet with 25% total fat, <7% saturated fat by use of corn oil as the oil commonly used in healthy baked goods, with 18% protein (the average for our subject population) using added skim milk powder, and zero cholesterol. Muffins will be made with whole wheat flour. Diet History: one-week weighed diet histories will be obtained prior to the start and at weeks 4, 8 and 12 of the study for assessment of macronutrients, dietary fiber and fatty acids. Palatability/Satiety: for palatability and satiety, subjects will record their ratings using a 7-point bipolar semantic scale at monthly intervals during each study phase. Anthropometry and Blood Pressure: height at recruitment and body weight, blood pressure, waist and hip circumference, and body composition will be taken immediately prior to and at each clinic visit (wk 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12) during the study.
Trial information was received from ClinicalTrials.gov and was last updated in January 2013.
Information provided to ClinicalTrials.gov by University of Toronto.