Overview

This trial is active, not recruiting.

Conditions retinoblastoma, retinal neoplasm
Treatments enucleation, vincristine, carboplatin, focal therapies, external beam radiation, vincristine + topotecan, vincristine + carboplatin + etoposide, vincristine + cyclophosphamide + doxorubicin, vincristine+carboplatin+etoposide, periocular carboplatin, g-csf
Phase phase 3
Sponsor St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
Collaborator National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Start date February 2005
End date November 2013
Trial size 107 participants
Trial identifier NCT00186888, P01CA023099, RET5

Summary

Retinoblastoma is a childhood cancer which affects the retina of the eye. The retina is the light sensitive layer of tissue that lines the back of the eyeball; sends visual messages through the optic nerve to the brain. When only one eye is affected, this is known as unilateral retinoblastoma and when both eyes are affected, it is called bilateral retinoblastoma. Treatment for retinoblastoma is individualized for each patient and is based on the form and the stage of the disease (inside the eye or has moved outside). The main goal is always to cure the cancer, and save the life of the child. Treatments are also designed with the hope of saving the vision, while completely destroying the tumor. Therapies may involve surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and other treatments called focal treatments. Focal treatments may be laser therapy, freezing, or heat treatments meant to shrink and kill the tumor.

In this study, researchers want to investigate how different participants respond to different therapies that are individualized specifically for them. Participants will be divided into three main groups, depending on whether the disease is unilateral or bilateral, and the stage of the disease. One of the main objectives of the study is to investigate how advanced tumors in children with bilateral disease respond to a new combination of chemotherapy with topotecan and vincristine, with G-CSF support. In order to improve results, some children with very advanced disease may receive carboplatin chemotherapy given around the eye at the same time that they receive topotecan by vein. Also, because children with retinoblastoma are diagnosed so early in life and the vision may be significantly impaired, this study will investigate how children develop and how the brain adjusts and compensates for the visual deficits. Finally, this study also investigates the biology of retinoblastoma, in order to understand better how this cancer develops.

United States No locations recruiting
Other Countries No locations recruiting

Study Design

Allocation non-randomized
Endpoint classification efficacy study
Intervention model parallel assignment
Masking open label
Primary purpose treatment
Arm
(Other)
Patients with early bilateral or unilateral, or patients with bilateral that have already had the advanced eye enucleated. Treatment included vincristine and carboplatin for 8 courses, given at 3-4 week intervals. Focal therapies any time after second course can include cryotherapy, laser photocoagulation, thermotherapy, and plaque radiotherapy
enucleation
Enucleation (possibly associated with all treatment strata/arms. For Stratum A, patients with bilateral disease will have surgery to remove the advanced eye before chemotherapy, or patients that have disease progression after chemotherapy may have surgery to remove the affected eye. For Stratum B, Surgical removal of the affected eye may be required in cases of disease progression For Stratum C, first intervention is removal of the affected eye.
vincristine, carboplatin
(Stratum A subjects receive 8 courses every 3-4 weeks, Stratum B subjects receive this combination for Courses 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, and 10 after the window, if they respond to window therapy) Vincristine dosage< 12 months of age: 0.05 mg/kg i.v. day 1, ≥ 12 months of age: 1.5 mg/m2 i.v. day 1 (max. dose 2 mg) Carboplatin will be administered i.v. to achieve an AUC of 6.5 mg/ml/min, day 1.
focal therapies
Method will be at the discretion of the treating team, used after second course of chemotherapy. Cryotherapy- freezing of affected tissue, Laser photocoagulation- using lasers to destroy affected tissue, Thermotherapy and thermochemotherapy- using heat or heat/chemotherapy combination to destroy diseased tissue, and Episcleral plaque brachytherapy- radiation insertions in the diseased area to destroy affected tissue.
external beam radiation
44-46 Gy administered using standard practices , limiting dose to normal tissues to subjects with recurrent or progressive disease not considered controllable with focal treatments, Stratum B subjects with suspected active disease after completing therapy, or patients considered to have high-risk disease.
g-csf
G-CSF (5 mcg/kg/day), will be administered starting 24-36 hours after the completion of each course of chemotherapy, for 7 to 10 days, until ANC is > 2,000/mL in one occasion after the expected nadir.
(Other)
Patients with bilateral disease (at least one advanced stage eye), candidate for conservative management. Treatment included window treatment with vincristine and topotecan, Followed by 3 more courses of vincristine-topotecan if they had a response to the window+ 6 courses of vincristine and carboplatin. If they do not respond to the window, they receive 6 courses of vincristine, carboplatin, and etoposide. Periocular injections of carboplatin are also given three times, depending on whether they respond to window.
enucleation
Enucleation (possibly associated with all treatment strata/arms. For Stratum A, patients with bilateral disease will have surgery to remove the advanced eye before chemotherapy, or patients that have disease progression after chemotherapy may have surgery to remove the affected eye. For Stratum B, Surgical removal of the affected eye may be required in cases of disease progression For Stratum C, first intervention is removal of the affected eye.
vincristine, carboplatin
(Stratum A subjects receive 8 courses every 3-4 weeks, Stratum B subjects receive this combination for Courses 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, and 10 after the window, if they respond to window therapy) Vincristine dosage< 12 months of age: 0.05 mg/kg i.v. day 1, ≥ 12 months of age: 1.5 mg/m2 i.v. day 1 (max. dose 2 mg) Carboplatin will be administered i.v. to achieve an AUC of 6.5 mg/ml/min, day 1.
focal therapies
Method will be at the discretion of the treating team, used after second course of chemotherapy. Cryotherapy- freezing of affected tissue, Laser photocoagulation- using lasers to destroy affected tissue, Thermotherapy and thermochemotherapy- using heat or heat/chemotherapy combination to destroy diseased tissue, and Episcleral plaque brachytherapy- radiation insertions in the diseased area to destroy affected tissue.
external beam radiation
44-46 Gy administered using standard practices , limiting dose to normal tissues to subjects with recurrent or progressive disease not considered controllable with focal treatments, Stratum B subjects with suspected active disease after completing therapy, or patients considered to have high-risk disease.
vincristine + topotecan
(Stratum B subjects receive two up-front courses of vincristine and topotecan, given in 21-day intervals, then those who respond receive 3 additional courses (courses 5, 8, and 11) after the window. Dosages are the same for both window and subsequent courses: Vincristine: < 12 months of age: 0.05 mg/kg i.v. day 1, ≥ 12 months of age: 1.5 mg/m2 i.v. day 1 (max. dose 2 mg) Topotecan: TSE of 140 ± 20 ng/ml*hr, daily for 5 consecutive days, infused over 30 minutes.
vincristine + carboplatin + etoposide
Stratum B patients that do not respond to window receive 6 courses of this combination. Vincristine: < 12 months of age: 0.05 mg/kg i.v. day 1, ≥ 12 months of age: 1.5 mg/m2 i.v. day 1 (max. dose 2 mg) Carboplatin will be administered i.v. to achieve an AUC of 6.5 mg/ml/min, day 1 Etoposide, < 12 months of age: 3.3 mg/kg/d i.v. days 1 - 3, ≥ 12 months of age: 100 mg/m2/d i.v. days 1 - 3
periocular carboplatin
Periocular (subtenon) carboplatin 20 mg, one injection, in courses 5, 8, and 11 in patients responding to the VT window, and in courses 1, 3, and 6 of VCE in patients not responding to the VT window, when active vitreous disease is present. Carboplatin 20 mg will be diluted in 2 mL of NS or D5W and given by subtenon administration while the patient is under general anesthesia.
g-csf
G-CSF (5 mcg/kg/day), will be administered starting 24-36 hours after the completion of each course of chemotherapy, for 7 to 10 days, until ANC is > 2,000/mL in one occasion after the expected nadir.
(Other)
Patients with advanced unilateral advanced intraocular disease. First intervention is enucleation. If enucleated eye does not have disease outside the retina (low risk), no additional treatment is given. For patients whose enucleated eye shows tumor outside the retina (intermediate risk), they will receive 4 courses of vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin followed by G-CSF. For patients with high risk disease (involvement of the sclera, optic nerve at the level of the cut-end), treatment after enucleation is 6 courses of alternating chemotherapy with vincristine, carboplatin, etoposide (VCE) to alternate with vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin (VCD). High risk patients also receive external-beam radiation therapy.
enucleation
Enucleation (possibly associated with all treatment strata/arms. For Stratum A, patients with bilateral disease will have surgery to remove the advanced eye before chemotherapy, or patients that have disease progression after chemotherapy may have surgery to remove the affected eye. For Stratum B, Surgical removal of the affected eye may be required in cases of disease progression For Stratum C, first intervention is removal of the affected eye.
external beam radiation
44-46 Gy administered using standard practices , limiting dose to normal tissues to subjects with recurrent or progressive disease not considered controllable with focal treatments, Stratum B subjects with suspected active disease after completing therapy, or patients considered to have high-risk disease.
vincristine + cyclophosphamide + doxorubicin
(High risk Stratum C patients in courses 2, 4, and 6 after enucleation, intermediate risk stratum C patients for four consecutive courses after enucleation) Vincristine: < 12 months of age: 0.05 mg/kg i.v. day 1, ≥ 12 months of age: 1.5 mg/m2 i.v. day 1 (max. dose 2 mg) Cyclophosphamide: < 12 months of age: 40 mg/kg i.v. day 1, ≥ 12 months of age: 1,200 mg/m2 i.v. day 1, MESNA 200 mg/m2 at 0, 3, 6, and 9 hours Doxorubicin < 12 months of age: 1.5 mg/kg i.v. day 1, ≥ 12 months of age: 45 mg/m2 i.v. day 1
vincristine+carboplatin+etoposide
High risk Stratum C patients in courses 1, 3, and 5 after enucleation: Vincristine: < 12 months of age: 0.05 mg/kg i.v. day 1, ≥ 12 months of age: 1.5 mg/m2 i.v. day 1 (max. dose 2 mg) Carboplatin will be administered i.v. to achieve an AUC of 6.5 mg/ml/min, day 1 Etoposide, < 12 months of age: 3.3 mg/kg/d i.v. days 1 - 3, ≥ 12 months of age: 100 mg/m2/d i.v. days 1 - 3
g-csf
G-CSF (5 mcg/kg/day), will be administered starting 24-36 hours after the completion of each course of chemotherapy, for 7 to 10 days, until ANC is > 2,000/mL in one occasion after the expected nadir.

Primary Outcomes

Measure
Stratum B Response to Window Therapy
time frame: Six weeks post window therapy

Secondary Outcomes

Measure
Stratum B Response Rate of Early Stage Eyes to Window Therapy
time frame: Six weeks post window therapy.
Relationship Between Topotecan Clearance (CL) and CYP3A4/5 Genotype in Stratum B Participants.
time frame: Courses 1, 2, 5, and 8
Relationship Between Topotecan Clearance (CL) and ABCG2/B1 Genotype in Stratum B Participants.
time frame: Courses 1, 2, 5, and 8

Eligibility Criteria

Male or female participants of any age.

Inclusion Criteria: - Must have newly diagnosed intraocular retinoblastoma, previously untreated. Patients previously diagnosed with unilateral retinoblastoma treated surgically (or with focal therapies), who develop asynchronous involvement of the contralateral eye, will be eligible for study. - Must have a life expectancy of at least 8 weeks. - Must have Performance Status (ECOG) of 0-2. - Patients must have an adequate liver function, as defined by bilirubin less than or equal to 3 x normal, and SGOT and SGPT less than or equal to 3x normal. - Patients must have adequate renal function as defined by serum creatinine less than or equal to 3x normal for age. - Legal guardians must sign an informed consent indicating that they are aware of this study, its possible benefits, and toxic side effects. Legal guardians will be given a copy of the consent form. Exclusion Criteria: - Previously treated patients - Presence of metastatic disease or orbital involvement - Patients must not have an invasive infection at time of protocol entry.

Additional Information

Official title Protocol for the Study and Treatment of Patients With Intraocular Retinoblastoma
Principal investigator Ibrahim Qaddoumi, M.D.
Description This study will determine the following: PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: - To estimate the ocular survival and event-free survival of bilateral disease patients with advanced intraocular retinoblastoma in either eye (R-E IV-V) responding to the vincristine/topotecan window, with alternating cycles of vincristine and carboplatin with vincristine, topotecan, and periocular carboplatin, with intensive focal treatments. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES: - To estimate the ocular survival of eye and event-free survival of eye of bilateral disease patients with advanced intraocular retinoblastoma in either eye (R-E IV-V) responding to the vincristine/topotecan window, with alternating cycles of vincristine and carboplatin with vincristine, topotecan, and periocular carboplatin, with intensive focal treatments. - To estimate the ocular survival and event free survival of patients with advanced intraocular retinoblastoma (R-E IV-V) not responding to the vincristine/topotecan window, with a combination of vincristine, carboplatin, etoposide, and periocular carboplatin, with intensive focal treatments. - To estimate the ocular survival and event free survival of eye of patients with advanced intraocular retinoblastoma (R-E IV-V) not responding to the vincristine/topotecan window, with a combination of vincristine, carboplatin, etoposide, and periocular carboplatin, with intensive focal treatments. - To estimate the ocular survival and event-free survival of patients with early stage intraocular retinoblastoma (R-E I-III) with vincristine and carboplatin with intensive focal treatments. - To estimate the ocular survival of eye and event-free survival of eye of patients with early stage intraocular retinoblastoma (R-E I-III) with vincristine and carboplatin with intensive focal treatments. - To estimate the response rate of early stage eyes (R-E I-III) in patients with contralateral advanced disease treated with vincristine and topotecan. - To estimate the ocular survival and event-free survival of early stage eyes (R-E I-III) of patients with contralateral advanced disease treated with vincristine and topotecan. - To describe the outcome of intraocular retinoblastoma with respect to the new International Classification for Intraocular Retinoblastoma and the AJCC. - To describe primary visual cortex function in patients with unilateral and bilateral retinoblastoma. - To describe the cognitive, adaptive, and social/emotional development of children with retinoblastoma. - To describe changes in the pineal gland during treatment in patients with bilateral retinoblastoma. - To assess the relation between CYP3A4/5 genotype and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of topotecan. - To assess the relation between ABCG2 genotype and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of topotecan. - To determine if carboplatin can produce changes in cochlear function that are detectable with measurement of otoacoustic emissions. - To evaluate the need for and feasibility of starting early intervention support during the first year after the diagnosis of retinoblastoma. EXPLORATORY OBJECTIVES: - To provide insight into molecular pathogenesis of retinoblastoma. - To describe the incidence and type of germline mutations of the RB gene in patients with retinoblastoma.
Trial information was received from ClinicalTrials.gov and was last updated in June 2014.
Information provided to ClinicalTrials.gov by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital.